FRENCH GUIANA — possession of France on S.-V. of South America. Territory of 91 thousand sq.km. Population of 60 thousand people (1975). Adm. the center — Cayenne (30 thousand zhit., 1974). Ofits. French.
G. F. (in the past colony of France) since 1946 has the status of «overseas department» of France. Is controlled the prefect appointed by the government of France, and electoral General council.
G. F. it is located on S.-V. of Guiana Highlands. The climate is subequatorial, wet, an annual average amount of precipitation — 3210 mm. In Cayenne average monthly t ° 28 — 29 °.
G. F. — developing country. The basis of the economy — agriculture. The sugarcane, bananas, cocoa, rice, corn, a cassava are grown up. Gold mining and bauxites, development of wood for export, trade of shrimps is conducted.
Apprx. 80% of the population Blacks, Creoles and metises make. Indians (to 10% of the population) remained only in certain forest areas. The St. 90% of the population live in a coastal part of the country. Vital rates (for 1000 us.) in 1973: birth rate — 28,3, the general mortality — 7,7, a natural increase — 20,6, child mortality — 43,1 on 1000 live-born.
In incidence of the population infectious and parasitic diseases (flu, a typhoid and paratyphus, malaria, tuberculosis, a leprosy, infectious hepatitis, measles, diphtheria, helminthoses) prevail, also venereal diseases are registered. The departmental doctor-inspector of health care and the departmental director of health and social services which report to the prefect are responsible for activity of health services.
In 1971 in the country two would function: one — the general type on 680 beds and one — tubercular on 110 beds (15,4 beds for 1000 of the population). The ambulatory care would be given in policlinic at the general type. In 1971 in the country 27 doctors (one doctor for 1850 inhabitants), 8 dentists, 13 midwifes worked. Actions for health protection of mother and the child would be carried out by policlinic at the general type. Are available antitubercular and venerol. clinics.
In Cayenne there is Pasterovsky's branch in-that dealing with issues of tropical medicine. There is a school on training of nurses (term of training of 28 months). In 1972 19 people studied, 9 of them gained diplomas about the termination of this school.
Bibliography: Countries of the world, Short political and economic reference book, page 309, M., 1974; Demographic yearbook 1971, p. 127, N. Y., 1972; World Health Statistics Annual 1970, v. 1, p. 3, Geneva, 1973; World Health Statistics Report, v. 26, M3, p. 138, 1973.
D. S. Khromov.