FRANK Johann (Frank Johann Peter, 1745 — 1821) is the German doctor, one of founders of public hygiene.
Studied medicine in Heidelberg and Strasbourg. Since 1769 the city doctor, the organizer of obstetric schools and hospitals, the initiator of anti-epidemic actions. Since
1784 professor of medical police in Goettingen; since 1786 professor of clinical medicine and the head of medical business («irotofizik») in Pavia (Italy). Since 1795 professor medical f-that Vienna un-that and at the same time head of hospital. On this post he took active part in reform of military-medical service, and also children's shelters. It founded the pathoanatomical museum in Vienna, legalized a prozektura as obligatory division of hospital, was an initiator of introduction of teaching pathological anatomy at medical faculty. In 1804 I. Frank moved to Russia. Till 1805 was Vilensky's professor (nowadays Vilnius) un-that. In 1805 — 1808 professor and the rector of the St. Petersburg medicochirurgical academy, the court doctor. He developed the plan of transformation of teaching to academies. Having retired, was returned to Vienna.
In the practical and scientific activities I. Frank paid special attention to questions of the organization of medical aid to the population, sanitation and hygiene. In the main work «System of General Medical Police» he for the first time allocated and developed the questions of public health care so integrated with forensic medicine. The big place in this work is allocated to them to the sanitary legislation, activity of governmental bodies in the field of sanitation and hygiene, the organization of obstetric care, fight against epidemic diseases, against child mortality, and also to promotion of personal and public hygiene, a hygienic condition of schools. I. Frank's work played a significant role and the subsequent development of hygienic science in 19 century, especially in formation of social hygiene. He is also the author of the fundamental work «About Treatment of Human Diseases». Works: De curandis hominum morbis epitome, Marmheim, 1794; System einer vollstandi-gen medizinischen Polizey, Bd 1 — 9, Mannheim u. a., 1779 — 1827.
Bibliography: Vengrova I. V. and
III and l and N and with Yu. A. Social hygiene in the USSR. (Sketches of history), page 19, M., 1976; M and c e l m and x e r and with V. G. Sketches on stories of medicine in Lithuania, page 102, L., 1967; Doll K. Dr Johann Peter Frank, Karlsruhe, 1909; Major R. H. A. A history of medicine, v. 2, Springfield, 1954. II. E. Zabludowsky.