From Big Medical Encyclopedia

FRACASTORO Girolamo (Fracas-toro Girolamo, 1478 — 1553) is the Italian scientist, the doctor, the writer, one of representatives of the Italian Renaissance.

Got a medical education in Padua. Early works of J. Frakastoro p wasps in I shch e N y to geology, optics, astronomy, philosophy.

J. Frakastoro systematized and generalized the provision on specific ii established by his predecessors the breeding infectious beginning — «contagion» and channelized a further research of infectious diseases. To Poetokhm the statement that he is a founder of the doctrine about a contagion (infection), incorrectly. Its first work devoted to syphilis was not finished with «De morbo gallico» (1525). Materials of this research were included into the poem «Syphilis, sive morbus gal-licus» published in 1530 in Verona, edges was translated into Russian in 1956 under the name «About Syphilis». The largest medical work of J. Frakastoro «O a contagion, contagious diseases and treatment» (1546) was repeatedly republished. Having generalized views of predecessors, starting with authors of antique antiquity to modern to it doctors, and also the experience, J. Frakastoro for the first time made attempt to create the general theory of epidemic diseases and to give the description of a number of separate diseases — smallpox, measles, plague, a consumption, rage, leprosy, etc. The first book is devoted to the general theoretical provisions, the second — to the description of separate infectious diseases, the third — to treatment. By J. Frakastoro's definition, «the contagion is the identical defeat passing from one to another; defeat is made in the smallest N particles unavailable to our feelings and begins with them». He distinguished specific «seeds» (i.e. activators) certain diseases and established three types of their distribution: direct contact, through posredstvuyushchy objects p at distance. Considerable impact was exerted by Frakastoro's doctrine on G. Fallopiya, G. Mercuriali, A. Kircher, etc.

In the homeland of J. Frakastoro in Verona in 1555 to it the monument was built.

Soch:. Syphilis, sive morbus gallicus, Verona, 1530 (Russian lane, M., 1956); De sympathia et antipathia rerum liber unus. De contagione et contagiosis morbis et curatione libri tres, Venetiis, 1546 (Russian lane, M., 1954).

Bibliography: Immortal B. S. Frakastoro and his role in the history of the doctrine about an infection, Zhurn. mikr., epid. and to them-mu N, No. 6, page 82, 1946; 3 and l at d about in -

with to and y P. E. Development of the doctrine about infectious diseases and Frakastoro's book, in book: Frakastoro D. About a contagion, contagious diseases and treatment, the lane from Latinas., e. 165, M., 1954; Major R. N

of Classic descriptions of disease, p. 37, Springfield, 1955; Singer C. Singer D. The scientific position of Girolamo Fraca-storo, Ann. med. Hist., v. 1, p. 1, 1917.

P.E. Zabludoveky.