FORGE AND PRESS PRODUCTION — industry of mechanical engineering industry. Forge press shops as the leading stock-preparation shops for after-treatment of metal are a part of the plants of heavy, transport, automobile and tractor mechanical engineering, aircraft construction, etc. In the USSR To. - nominative is characterized by a high level of mechanization tekhnol, processes.
Tekhnol, process To. - the pct is based on giving to the metal which is in a heated state, a certain form by means of forging, stamping or pressing. Depending on the nature of production one of the specified processes prevails.
Labor process of punchers, press operators and heaters differs in high rate of work, monotony and frequency of the repeating movements, a considerable static load at small number of micropauses in the course of work that is especially characteristic of work on average and easy hammers. On heavy pressa tekhnol, processes are most mechanized. The working pose of crane operators is extremely inconvenient (they work standing, having a little bent through a barrier of a cabin), at the same time the considerable static load is the share of muscles of a back and a shoulder girdle.
Tekhnol, process To. - the pct is connected with considerable calorification, formation of products of incomplete combustion of fuel and products of thermo-destruction of technological lubricants.
Considerable releases of sulphurous anhydride are observed at use for heating furnaces of the generator gas which is not purified of impurity of sulfur and sulphurous fuel oil. Pollution of the air environment of workshops K. - nominative carbon monoxide and sulphurous anhydride during the burning in furnaces of low-sulfur fuel oil and the generator gas purified of impurity of sulfur, as a rule, it is small; especially in the modern forge workshops differing in rational architectural and construction registration of the buildings promoting their good aeration and the equipment of heating furnaces by gazodymootvodyashchy channels.
On large To. - pct for heating of metal are used induction furnaces which operation is not followed by education and release of the specified gases.
To. - the pct is characterized by unfavorable conditions as a result of return of radiant and convection heat from the surface of furnaces, heated preparations, the cooling-down finished products. Air temperature can reach in workplaces 30 — 36 °, and in smithies with a two-row arrangement tekhnol, the equipment — 40 — 45 ° at relative humidity of 30 — 40%. Even more unfavorable conditions are created in a zone of an arrangement of cabins of operators of bridge cranes. In addition to high temperatures of air in cabins of cranes, thermal radiation from heated metal walls of a cabin which temperature reaches 35 — 40 ° has essential value. Punchers, smiths, heaters, helpers of smiths are also affected by radiant heat from steel preparations, loading windows and the surface of heating furnaces. On average thermal radiation fluctuates from 300 to 4500 kcal/sq.m-hours
Tekhnol, the equipment K. - nominative creates very intensive noise, the general level to-rogo reaches 98 — 114 dB. The range of noise lies within high frequencies (4000 — 8000 Hz). At dynamic metal working (forging, stamping) noise has pulse character.
Intense physical. work of punchers, smiths, press operators in the conditions of impact of radiation, high temperature and intensive noise can cause overheating of an organism (see), considerable shifts from cardiovascular system, c. N of page. Removal from an organism of a significant amount of chlorides with allocated then can cause disturbance of water-salt balance (see. Water salt metabolism ). Due to intensive sweating there is a considerable lose of weight of a body by the end of work which is recovered after rest by the beginning of the next day. From cardiovascular system decrease in the maximal blood pressure, increase of pulse is noted.
The most characteristic occupational disease of workers in To. - nominative is relative deafness (see). Diseases of upper respiratory tracts can be noted.
The contact of workers with tekhnol, lubricants creates possibility of skin diseases.
Traumatism of workers To. - nominative is, as a rule, higher, than among working other workshops of mechanical engineering industry. The mechanical and thermal injuries caused by specifics tekhnol, process (otletany scales) are characteristic. Considerable danger concerning traumatism is constituted by operations of dredging and transportation of preparations from furnaces to hammers and to the place of their warehousing.
Recreational actions in To. - pct shall be directed to the prevention of an adverse effect of high temperature and a radiant energy, and also to protection of workers against impact of noise.
The first task can be solved by way of correctly organized aerations (see). At construction of the multi-span building the device all-exchange is necessary ventilation (see) with air conditioning (see).
The single-row arrangement tekhnol, the equipment is of great importance for reduction of heat releases. To reduce adverse influence of thermal radiation from heated surfaces of forgings and furnaces, it is necessary to carry out actions for heat insulation of heated surfaces and absorption of a radiant energy. The greatest effect (decrease in a radiation intensity to 80%) gives use of water cooling of covers and the case of furnaces, a water veil on the receiving opening of furnaces.
Other actions for fight against a caloradiance and high temperature of air are similar to those which are widely carried out in hot workshops (see. Hot workshops ).
Aeration and air dushirovaniye promote also decrease in concentration of various gases in workplaces. However removal them from furnaces and horns shall be carried out by the local mechanical exhaust ventilation. Decrease in concentration of products of incomplete combustion of fuel, and in some cases and a complete elimination of some of them can be reached by improvement of fuel quality for heating furnaces and replacement tekhnol, lubricants on an oil basis water. The best conditions are created at combustion of the generator gas purified of impurity of sulfur. Combustion of sulphurous fuel oil can be allowed only at the equipment of furnaces by rather effective system of dymogazootvodyashchy channels. Release of carbon monoxide at observance of the corresponding sealing of gas supply communications is insignificant. The correct regulation of pressure in the furnace is very important. During the heating of small preparations in horns ventilating installations which soaking-up section is as close as possible to a source of formation of gas and smoke are most effective.
The actions providing improvement of the air environment in workshops K. - nominative, give some positive effect and in improvement of working conditions of crane operators of bridge cranes. Cabins of bridge cranes in workshops K. - nominative shall be heat-insulated by the device of double walls, between to-rymi fill an interval with slag wool or other low-heat-conducting materials. The glazing of cabins shall be double, with an air gap. The configuration of front and side walls of a cabin shall provide to the crane operator an opportunity to work sitting. The closed cabins of bridge cranes are equipped with the independent conditioners installed on a farm of the bridge of the crane. Air moves on a workplace of the crane operator from above through a perforated ceiling. Lamps for lighting of the place of work it is necessary to have on the cart of the crane with their inclusion from a cabin. A radical recreational action is transition to distance steering by mechanisms of the crane from the lower zone of the workshop.
In workshops K. - are recommended to nominative for prevention of traumatism: the device of safety barriers at parts of the equipment, dangerous on traumatism; systematic check of operability of the tool; establishment of the guards protecting workers from the flying-away scale; training of the workers in the correct working methods and heating of metal excluding excess scaling; allocation of special places for storage of the tool and finished products; prevention of blocking up of working platforms and passes; timely export of finished products. An important role in fight against traumatism is played by the correct organization of artificial and natural lighting of workshops K. - nominative. At design of artificial lighting it is necessary to be guided SNIP-11-9-71.
Overalls shall protect workers from burns, not ignite and protect from overheating. All workers To. - pct shall be provided with tarpaulin mittens. Nek-rym to categories of smiths protective footwear is given (see. Footwear special ). Workers To. - nominative shall wear safety spectacles with thick (3 — 4 mm) glasses from organic glass. For protection against bright light and intensive infrared radiation heaters shall use points of type 080 in accordance with GOST 98-02-61 with light filters in accordance with GOST 94-97-60 (see. Points, protective ).
For prevention of harmful action of noise implementation of distance steering of a pressama with the device of the soundproofed cabins is of great importance for operators. Use of antinoise (earplug) is reasonable.
Workers To. - nominative at revenues to work are exposed to preliminary medical examination according to the Order of the Minister of Health of the USSR No. 400 of 1969. Periodic survey of workers shall be made 1 time in 12 months.
Bibliography: Kokhanova N. A., etc. Ergonomics in modern forge production, in book: Probl, engineering psikhol, and ergonomics, under the editorship of V. F.Rubakhin, century 2, page 242, M., 1974; Kotenkov V. N. To a question of assessment of weight of work of the workers occupied with hot working of metals pressure, the Gigabyte. work and the prof. having got sick., No. 4, page 5, 1976; Kotenkov V. N., Silver L. A. and Schaefer S. S. Some questions of occupational health during the processing of metals on krivoshipny goryacheshtampovochny pressa, in the same place, No. 4, page 38, 1975; Koshenkov V. N., Schaefer S. S. to an ipodobaa. B. Hygienic assessment of conditions and the modes of work of smiths at hot-stamping, in book: Nauch. - tekhn. progress and gigabyte. work in mechanical engineering, under the editorship of A. A. Kasparov, page 85, M., 1977; Lyapidevskaya G. V. About hygienic assessment of pulse noise in connection with implementation of the electroguide-ravlichesky equipment in mechanical engineering, the Gigabyte. work and the prof. having got sick., No. 2, page 4, 1977; P1 and l and sh about in N. Ya. Influence of production noise on an acoustic organ working in forge production, in the same place, with No. 7, page * 41, 1965.
S. S. Schaefer.