FORENSIC MEDICINE — the industry of medicine representing set of knowledge and special methods of a research applied to the solution of specific objectives of health care and questions of medicobiological character arising in activity of law enforcement agencies.
The Soviet S. of m connected with social and legal aspects of life of people has class and party character. S.'s party membership of m consists in its service to social progress, moral ideals of socialism and communism, aspiration to give help to law enforcement agencies in establishment of the truth. In it objectivity, the validity and humanity are merged together. In the capitalist countries of S. of m is depending on the dominating bourgeois ideology and policy of exploiter classes; she has, as a rule, the expressed utilitarian and pragmatical character and pursues only the investigative and criminalistic aims, serving the bourgeois court seeming fair and democratic only external attributes.
The circle of scientific interests and the resolved questions connects S. by m with various industries of medicine, some other disciplines and sciences — criminalistics, civil and criminal law and process, physics, chemistry, biology, mathematics, etc. It causes broad use in S. of m of the approaches and techniques used in other sciences and specialties. Besides, m, specific to S., ways and methods of researches, napr, for the purpose of establishment of prescription of approach of death are developed (see. Death in the medicolegal relation ), recognitions of the tool of an injury, disclosure of mechanisms of damage, etc. A wide spread occurance in S. the m, both in scientific research, and during the conducting examinations, received an experimental method, including modeling. This method allows to reproduce specific events, fullestly and comprehensively to answer the questions of medical character arising in the course of inquiry, the investigation and court. The analysis section and a wedge, material gives the chance with ud. - to medical experts to establish the reasons of injuries, poisonings, medical errors, etc., what promotes including to upgrading to lay down. - the prof. of the help.
In S. the m can be allocated the procedural and organizational section, in Krom organizational forms and procedural provisions of medicolegal are considered examinations (see) — maintenance and interpretation of laws and departmental orders, the rights it is also obliged -
Nosta, competence and responsibility court. - medical experts, the organization court. - medical services, etc., and the sections making the maintenance actually of S. of m as science. Treat the last: with ud. - honey. thanatology (see); court. - the medical traumatology, a subject makes a cut diagnosis of damages (see Damages to the medicolegal relation) and establishment of mechanisms of their emergence; studying of hypoxemic states (their reasons, morfol. manifestations and ways of diagnosis), action of extreme temperatures, electrical and radiant energy, barotraumas; court. - the medical toxicology developing methods of establishment and the prevention of poisonings; court. - the medical obstetrics and gynecology studying the questions connected with examination of disputable sexual states (see. Sexual states disputable ) or with sexual crimes (see); studying of material evidences (see), including development a lab. methods of a research of objects of examination biol. origins (see. Medicolegal laboratory researches). With criminalistics the questions of identification of the personality studied by S. in m are boundary (see), tools of an injury on the nature of damage, etc. Besides, it is accepted to allocate court. - medical examination — direct use of knowledge accumulated by forensic medicine in investigative and jurisprudence during the conducting examination of corpses, the victims, defendants and other persons, material evidences, and also examinations on materials and documents.
Emergence and S.'s formation are connected by m with origin and registration of statehood. Already in statutes of the ancient states instructions on use of anthropological and medical knowledge at the solution of questions of civil and criminal law meet, and in written monuments of Ancient Rome, Ancient Greece, India, China, etc. — data on incidental involvement of the persons expert in medicine, for the solution of the nek-ry special questions connected with infliction of harm to health or with the death of the person.
The earliest of the scientific works which reached our days on forensic medicine it is considered to be the compendium of «Yuan-lu's SI» created in 1247 Sung-Ca (see) which generalized knowledge and representations of ancient Chinese in the field of forensic medicine and the right became, in essence, the first in the world literature guide to S. of m.
The first ugolovnsh the code of medieval Europe, in Krom questions court. - medical examinations got legislative registration, became made by J. Schwarzenberg in 1507. Bamberg code. Afterwards it was the basis for the Criminal code (code) of Charles V known under the name «Carolina» (1532) and having exclusive value for strengthening and S.'s development by m in Europe. In it cases of legal proceedings were precisely designated, at to-rykh participation of the doctor is necessary: survey of a corpse, case of infanticide, injuries, poisonings, mistakes of doctors, etc. Date of publication of this document is considered to be date of official formation of S. of m.
Further development of S. of m is closely connected with development of legal relations, and also achievements of natural sciences — physics, chemistry, biology and medicine, and first of all histology and patol. anatomy. In 1575 A. Paré's compositions «About damages», «About virginity», «About different types of violent death», «Manuals to the composition of medicolegal opinions», and at the end of 16 century — work Kohn-dronkhi of «The rule of drawing up acts and the conclusions» are published. In 1602 F. Fidelis for the first time in Europe made an attempt to systematically state S. to m, having published the composition «About reports of doctors», and in 1621 — 1661 the multivolume guide of the Roman doctor P. Zacchius was published. For the first time systematized and Bonn allocated S. m as the independent section of medical science (J. Cry out) in the composition published by it in 1690 in Leipzig entitled «Forensic medicine». This name is final and was assigned to S. by m as behind science and specialty. The great influence on S.'s development by m was exerted by introduction of public legal proceedings, a cut obliged the medical expert to prove and protect publicly the conclusions, and also legalization of full necropsy (see Opening, medicolegal). For the first time such law was adopted in the duchy Wurtemberg (1686), and afterwards and in other states of Europe.
In 18 century the compositions which became a basis of lecture courses according to S. to m in high fur boots and academies were published. It first of all «Establishments of forensic medicine» of Teykhmayer (H. F. Teichmayer, 1722), «System of medical law» of Alberti (M. of Alberti, 1748), «Readings about a judicial vrachebnovedeniye» Haller (A. Haller, 1784), «Judicial anthropology» of Hebenshtreyt (Hebenst-reit, 1753) and «Materials on the state vrachebnovedeniye» of Metsger (Metzger, 1792). In 19 century in France, and then and in Germany the court begins to be published periodic. - medical literature. At this time there were fundamental works on Orfil's toxicology (M. J. Century of Orfila, 1818) and guides to Orfil (1823) and Deverzhi's forensic medicine (M. of G. A. De-vergie, 1836). The significant contribution to S.'s development by m was made during this period in Germany by A. Casper, Liman, Skrzecz-ka, in Austria — J. Masch-ka and E. Gofmann who created the textbook translated to many languages and which sustained a large number of reprintings in France — Turd (To-urdes), A. A. Tardieu, P. Brouardel, in England — A. Taylor.
At the end of 18 — the beginning of 19 centuries in high fur boots of Europe taught S. to m together with anatomy; at the end of 19 century in Vienna, Berlin and other large cities S. are created by m in-you, and at high fur boots in France, Austria-Hungary, Belgium, Switzerland, Romania — independent departments of police and forensic medicine.
The main sovr. the directions C. of m form at the end of 19 — the beginning of 20 centuries thanks to progress in development of physics, chemistry, microbiology, hematology, immunology and a serology. Opening of blood groups (see) laid the foundation for development of such section C. of m as a research of material evidences, in particular court. - medical hematology. Such sections C. of m as court were finally issued. - medical traumatology, thanatology, obstetrics and gynecology. Allocation in special specialties of judicial psychiatry (see), judicial chemistry was outlined and was gradually carried out (see) and toxicology (see), bases of criminalistic examination arose. In S.'s development by m in 19 — 20 centuries the significant contribution was made V. Balthazard in France; F. Strassmann in Germany; A. Haberda in Austria; S. Smith, Littlejohn in England; Tamassia, Lattes in Italy; Minovich (M. Minovici) in Romania; L. Wachholz, V. Gzhivo-Dombrovsky, Y. S. Olbrycht, Popelsky (V. Ro-pielski) in Poland; Knoblokh (E. Kpo-bloch), Slavek in Czechoslovakia, etc.
Among sovr. scientists it is necessary to mark out authors of the guides and textbooks — Müller (V. of Muller), A. Ponsold in Germany; G. Hansen, O. Prokop, W. Durwald in GDR; Simonena (S. Simonin) in France; Kernbakh (M. Kernbach) in Romania; I. G. Pop-Vasileva in Bulgaria; Simpson (To. Simpson) in England; Gonzales in the USA, etc.
In Russia the first data on obligatory survey (see) the persons who received corporal povrezhde-@ I belong to 11 — 13 centuries, however it was carried out, as a rule, by judges, but not physicians. In 16 — 17 centuries medical surveys in connection with bruises, suspicions of poisoning, medical offenses and definition of suitability to execution of the public and military service were carried out incidentally. Since 1716 the article 154 Army regulations of Peter I obligatory opening of corpses in cases of violent death was offered. First of all it was entered into armies, on the fleet and 56 largest cities of Russia (the shortcoming of doctors long did not allow to implement this order everywhere yet). Since 1746 the obligatory research of corpses of the dead in cases of sudden death is entered. For court. - medical openings of corpses and survey of living persons the institute of policemen, and afterwards and district doctors was founded. Since 1797 these functions were transferred to newly created medical justices in all provincial cities. To direct carrying out court. - medical examinations quite often were involved M. Ya. Mudroye, I. V. Buyaljsky (the author «The managements to doctors in the correct survey of dead human bodies for bonds-naniya of a cause of death, especially at judicial researches»), N. I. Pies (the author «The anatomic images of a human body appointed preferential for judicial doctors»), etc. The main document regulating production with ud. - medical examinations, at that time were «Manuals to doctors at judicial survey and opening of dead bodies» (1829), and since 1842 — the Charter of forensic medicine existing with little changes up to 1917. Considerably activated S.'s development by m in Russia introduction in 1864 of the public legal proceedings demanding from medical experts of scientific justification of the conclusions.
S.'s teaching of m in the form of a systematic course of lectures with a practical training belongs to the second half of 18 century. Originally S. m taught together with anatomy and physiology; in 1863. The university charter regulated its teaching together with hygiene, sanitation, epidemiology, as defined domestic S.'s development by m as social science. The charter of 1884 founded independent department of forensic medicine.
In 19 century at a medical f-takh of high fur boots departments were created, on to-rykh the forensic medicine was taught. At the Moscow university I. F. Vensovich, E. O. Mukhin, A. O. Armfeld, D.E. Min, I. I. Neyding, P. A. Minakov managed such department consistently. In 19 century and the beginning of 20 century these scientists and teachers created the Moscow school of judicial physicians and laid its foundation. In St. Petersburg un-those during this period worked S. A. Gromov — the author of the first domestic textbook according to S. of the m published in 1832, E. V. Pelikan, P. P. Zabolotsky, F. Ya. Chistovich. The founder of the Kazan school of judicial physicians consider I. M. Gvozdev — the author of fundamental works on examination of living persons, the Kiev school — N. A. Obolonsky — the author of «The helper at a medicolegal research of a corpse».
Due to the radical reform of a state system and criminal law after Great October socialist revolution there was a need for radical reorganization court. - medical services. the 20th can be considered the period of formation of the Soviet forensic medicine (selection and placement of personnel, establishment of volume and kind of work with ud. - the medical expert and his legal status). In 1918 at Narkomzdrava RSFSR organized department of Civil medicine with section of medical examination. In 1919 the section became independent department; in it «The provision on the rights and duties of the state forensic scientists» (1919) was drafted. Rights and duties court. - medical experts were legislatively fixed by introduction of UK RSFSR (1922) and Code of Criminal Procedure RSFSR (1923).
In 1924 at Narkomzdrava RSFSR founded a position of hl. court. - the medical expert. The organization of bureau court treats the same time. - medical examinations at regional and regional public health departments, introduction to practice of regular regional meetings of judicial physicians with participation of representatives of prosecutor's office, militia, criminalists. Expansion of wide network of medical higher education institutions, including in federal and autonomous republics, considerably intensified preparation of practical and scientific shots of judicial physicians.
In 1923 in Moscow the Central medicolegal laboratory in 1931 reorganized into scientific research institute of forensic medicine M3 of the USSR was created, V. M. Smoljyaninov and N. V. Popov were organizers and the first heads to-rogo. From 1939 to 1979 V. I. Prozorovsky who made a big contribution to the organization court was the director of it in-that. - medical services and implementation in practice of scientific achievements of S. of m. In a crust, time of in-t A. P. Gromov heads.
Considerable impact on further development of S. of m was exerted by the resolution SNK USSR of July 4, 1939. «About measures of strengthening and development of forensic medical examination», in Krom were legislatively fixed structure court. - medical services, the organization of training of judicial physicians, etc.
During the premilitary period domestic S. in m was enriched with the edition of a number of the original managements and textbooks. First of all, it guides to forensic medicine of N. S. Bokarius (1925, 1930) and K. A. Nizhegorodtsev (1928), «Drawing up medicolegal documents» A. I. Zakonov (1927), textbook «Judicial Chemistry» of A. V. Stepanov (1929), guide to judicial ballistics of B. F. Chervakova (1937) and on medicolegal obstetric and gynecologic examination of E. E. Rozenblyu-ma, M. G. Serdyukov, V. M. Smol-yaninova (1935). In 1938 with participation and under N. V. Popov's edition there was a guide of «Fundamentals of forensic medicine» which did not lose the value and so far. Creation of the textbook by N. V. Popov on forensic medicine for students of legal in-t (1938) and students of medical in-t (1940) belongs to the same period, to-ry afterwards it was repeatedly republished and it was transferred to a number of foreign languages.
In the period of the Great Patriotic War there was military S. of m, edges was issued as independent service in 1943. Judicial physicians were a part of the Extraordinary State commission on establishment and investigation of crimes of fascist aggressors. The big role in exposure of fascist crimes was played by M. I. Avdeev, V. I. Prozorovsky, P. S. Semenovsky, V. M. Smolya-ninov, etc., being involved in trials on cases of atrocities of invaders in the territory of Krasnodar Krai, the Kharkiv region, in Nazi concentration camps of death of Zaksenkhauzene, Auschwitz, Maydaneke, etc. The important place among the exposing materials of charge was taken by the conclusions of the Soviet judicial physicians on the Nuremberg trial of the main war criminals.
Post-war period of development of C. the m was marked by issue in 1946. «The collection of official and reference materials on judicial medical examination», A. M. Hamburg monograph «Forensic medical examination of self-wounds», in 1947 — M. A. Bronnikova's guides «A medicolegal research of material evidences». N. V. Popov generalized results mnogochi-with lenny serological and gematol. researches. Basic researches of judicial physicians in this direction played during the Great Patriotic War an important role the organizations of hemotransfusion by the wounded.
In the subsequent the numerous guides and grants to survey of a corpse on site of its detection, court were published. - to a medical research of a corpse, gistol. to a research of objects court. - medical examinations, with ud. - to medical gynecology and obstetrics, examination of living persons, a research of clothes, material evidences, etc.; monographs by separate types of the damages caused by the cutting and kolyushche-cutting objects, firearms, automobile and by rail at mechanical asphyxia, on examination of poisonings, a drunkenness.
Scientific court. - medical about-va in the majority of the countries were organized in the first half of 20 century. In 1938 the International academy of forensic and social medicine was created, the Soviet judicial physicians take part in activity a cut since 1961. I All-Russian congress court. - medical experts (1920) developed organizational forms and standards of forensic medicine. The first in our country scientific about-in forensic medicine, medical examination and criminalistics was created in 1925 at North Caucasian state un-those. Were the same year organized scientific about-va judicial physicians in Leningrad, Rostov-on-Don and Moscow. The II All-Russian congress of judicial physicians (1926) was actually all-Union on the presentability and played an important role in formation and strengthening court. - medical services. At the All-Union conference (1946) were organized All-Union about-in judicial physicians and criminalists and its republican and regional departments. Scientific about-va judicial physicians V. M. Smolyaninov was elected the chairman Vsesoyuznogo. Topical issues of forensic medicine, upgrading court were discussed at I (1976) and II (1982) All-Union congresses of judicial physicians. - medical examinations.
V. M. Smolyaninov, M. I. Avdeev, V. I. Prozorovsky, V. F. Cherva-kov, M. A. Bronnikova, A. K. Tumanov actively participated in training of judicial physicians. A big role in preparation of scientific and practical shots and in development court. - medical sciences in Ukraine were played by M. I. Raysky, Yu. S. Sapozhnikov, N. S. Bokarius; in Kazakhstan — S. M. Sidorov; in Leningrad — I. F. Ogarkov and O, X. Porksheyan.
In a crust, time S.'s teaching of m is carried out in medical higher education institutions and on a medical f-takh of high fur boots, and also in legal higher education institutions and educational institutions of the Ministry of Internal Affairs where lawyers receive data on limits and opportunities court. - medical examinations, a circle of questions, to-rymi S., and also the practical skills necessary for them during the investigation of crimes against the personality is engaged in m, at inspection of the scene and a corpse, detection, fixing and withdrawal of the material evidences demanding further court. - medical examinations.
Training of doctors in the area C. of m is carried out in an internship, an internship and a postgraduate study. An important link in preparation court. - medical experts institutes of improvement of doctors — TsIU, Leningrad, Kiev and Kharkiv to the GUIDE In, and in professional development of teaching personnel — the 1st and 2nd MMI, Leningrad pediatric in-t are.
For post-war years judicial physicians protected more than 80 doctoral and St. 600 master's theses devoted to scientific development of such urgent problems as court. - a medical research of material evidences biol. origins; qualification of severity of injuries; examination of the damages caused by acute tools and objects, firearms; examination of sudden death. The considerable number of scientific works is devoted to diagnosis of prescription of approach of death, establishment of conditions and the mechanism of external influence (osbbenno at an injury by blunt objects) on features of damages, a prizhiznennost and the sequence of their causing, determination of terms of emergence. Researches of judicial physicians exerted impact on the theory and practice of scientific researches in such medical disciplines as patol. physiology, patol. anatomy, surgery, therapy, immunology and military medicine.
The organizing role in planning and coordination of scientific research in the field of forensic medicine and judicial chemistry belongs to head institution — scientific research institute of forensic medicine M3 of the USSR. Control of the organization and development of scientific research in S. of m carries out Scientific Council on forensic medicine at the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences, tasks to-rogo are development of the main directions of scientific research on forensic medicine, recommendations for drawing up plans of researches, drafts of comprehensive programs of a research, coordination of researches, generalization of the domestic and foreign best practices, introduction of offers on complex scientific research (with judicial physicians of other countries).
Are engaged in implementation of scientific achievements in expert practice main court. - medical experts of mines - in health care of the USSR and federal republics, All-Union scientific about-in judicial physicians, bureau court. - medical examinations of autonomous republics, edges and areas.
The big role in distribution of scientific achievements and the best practices belongs to the Forensic medical examination magazine issued since 1958.
History — Avakyan N. M., Makaryan E. A. itorosyan A. S. Sketches of history of forensic medicine of Armenia, Yerevan, 1970; Bronnikova M. A. and and r to and in and A. S. Development of forensic medical examination of material evidences to the USSR, Court. - medical examination, t. 10, No. 4, page 3, 1967; Hamburg A. M. Development of medicolegal science and examination, Kiev, 1962; Deryabina V. JI. Sketches of development of prosection matter in Russia and the USSR, M., 1958; Panfilenko O. A. The organization of research institute of forensic medicine and its activity during 1933 — 1945, in book: Vopr. court. - medical examinations, under the editorship of A. P. Gromova, etc., page 260, M., 1968; Chervakov V. F., Matova E. E. and Shershavkin S. V. is 150 years old of department of forensic medicine of the I Moscow Order of Lenin of medical institute (1804 — 1954), M., 1955; Shershavkin S. V. History of domestic medicolegal service, M., 1968.
Guides, textbooks, reference media — Avdeev M. I. Course of forensic medicine, M., 1959; it, Forensic medical examination of a corpse, M., 1979; Bronnikova M. A. and Garka-v and A. S. Technique and technology of forensic medical examination of material evidences, M., 1963; The Hookean N. I. and Sveshnikov V. A. Forensic medical examination of a corpse on cases of violent death, M., 1957; Kasyanov M. I. Очерки^ medicolegal histology, M., 1954; Knob-lokh E. Medical criminalistics, Prague, 1959; Fundamentals of forensic medicine, under the editorship of N. V. Popov, M. — L., 1938; N. V. Priests. Forensic medicine, M., 1950; R and y with to and y M. I. Forensic medicine for students and doctors, M., 1953; Serdyukov M. G. Judicial gynecology and judicial obstetrics, M., 1964; Smolyaninov V. M., Tati-ev K. I. and Chervakov V. F. Forensic medicine, M., 1963; Stepanov A. V. Judicial chemistry, M., 1951; Forensic medicine, under the editorship of. A. R. Den-kovsky and A. A. Matysheva, L., 1976; Forensic medicine, under the editorship of V. M. Smolya-ninov, M., 1982; Tomilin V. V. Forensic medicine, M., 1978; Tumanov A. K. Bases of forensic medical examination of material evidences, M., 1975; Shvaykova M. D. Judicial chemistry, M., 1965; 60 years of the Soviet health care, glavn. edition B. V. Petrovsky, M., 1977; Hansen G. Gerichtliche Medizin, Lpz., 1957; Hofmann E. R. Lehrbuch der gerichtlichen Medicin, B. — Wien, 1927; Medycyna s^dowa, pod red. B. Popielskiego, Warszawa, 1972; P about n-s about 1 d t A. Lehrbuch der gerichtlichen Medizin, Stuttgart, 1957; P of about k about p O. Lehrbuch der gerichtlichen Medizin, B., 1960.
Periodicals — Forensic medical examination, M., since 1958; American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pa-thology, N. Y., since 1980; Archiwum Medycyny s^dowej i Kryminologii, Warszawa, since 1968 (1962 — 1967 — Archiwum Medycyny of s$do-wej, Psychiatrii s^dowej i Kryminologii); Medico-Legal Journal, L., since 1947; Morpholo-giaj es Igazsagugyi Orvosi Szemle, Budapest, since 1961; Zeitschrift fiir Rechtsmedizin, V., since 1922.
Century of H. Hooks, P. P. Shirinsky.