From Big Medical Encyclopedia

FOOTWEAR it is intended for protection of legs against adverse external effects (high and low temperatures, bruises, pollution). However incorrectly picked up O. in some cases can interfere with normal activity of a musculoskeletal system of foot.

To destination O. happens household and special. Household O. is subdivided on daily, output, house and children's; special — on military, sports, orthopedic and production (protective).

Dignity. - a gigabyte. requirements to O.: footwear shall support depreciation and spring function of foot, correspond to anatomo-physiological features of foot, working conditions and life, to season and climate, to be convenient for socks and not to interfere with natural development of foot, shall not squeeze foot, break krovo-and a lymphokinesis, an innervation and shall not cause attritions (see).

The sizes and a form O. are characterized by its number and completeness. In the USSR such numbering system of O. is accepted, at a cut length of foot expressed in centimeters is accepted to number; an interval between numbers 0,5 see. The numbering system works in the majority of foreign countries, at a cut length of a trace of a block (insole) expressed in shtikha is accepted to number O. (1 Stich is equal to 2/3 cm).

In our country O.'s numbering in shtikha is also entered. According to the accepted O.'s numbering it is subdivided on groups and numbers (see the table).

Table. Group of footwear and the operating numbering

Fig. 1. Skeleton of a distal part of foot: and — normal; — changed by wearing tight (close) footwear.

The lake shall be longer than foot on 10 — 15 mm therefore during the fitting it is necessary to pay attention to that the thumb did not rest against a sock of footwear. Pressure upon foot from O.'s top shall not be excessive in order to avoid squeezing of blood vessels on the back of foot and disturbance of blood circulation. It is necessary to consider that at hard work and during the overheating of an organism the speed of blood circulation in extremities often increases in 70 and more times, and in the central part of a body only by 4 times. The obstacles created to the strengthened blood circulation in foot can lead to freezing injury it even at t ° 0 °. It is necessary to avoid to use close and narrow O. since such O.'s carrying can lead to change of a form of foot (fig. 1), restriction of mobility of joints. The lake with excessively high heels leads to shortening of gastrocnemius muscles and relaxation of front muscles of a shin and a linking of foot that is followed by extreme instability of a leg in connection with movement of the center of gravity forward, and the center of a support — on the bent fingers and a heel. This results from the fact that at O. with high heels the area of a support is 30 — 40% less, than at O. with low heels, a consequence of what the frequent podvertyvaniye of foot, sprain, and sometimes and dislocations of an ankle joint are. O.'s carrying with high heels especially reflects adversely on children and teenagers since contributes to a rachiocampsis, change of a normal form of a basin, shift of internals, emergence of pain etc. The wide heel of moderate height increases depreciation during the walking and promotes preservation of the arch of foot. The heel shall be raised at 1/14 lengths of foot (about 15 — 30 mm); at the same time the corner between a shin and foot in 128 ° is formed and optimum muscular balance between sgibatel and razgibatel of foot is established. 10 — 30 mm are considered the most acceptable height of a heel for men of 20 — 30 mm, for women of 20 — 40 mm, for children (depending on age). The lake shall have the sock corresponding to width and outlines of a first line of foot.

The important requirement to O. is its water resistance, a sufficient ventiliruyemost, softness, ease. It shall not change flexibility, a form and the sizes after moistening and drying, shall keep stability of a microclimate in the internal space that depends on air permeability of materials and O.'s design, to have small weight, not to cause difficulties at care of it and in case of need — disinfection. In winter conditions in cold and average climatic zones it is necessary to use O. made of the natural and fur fabric, wool and other low-heat-conducting materials having big thickness. The lake, intended for the summer period and used in the conditions of elevated temperature, shall have sufficient ventilation of shoe space in order to avoid an overheat of foot and accumulation of sweat. It is known that under normal conditions an ambient air (f 18 — 20 °, humidity of 65 — 75%) foot of the adult within 1 hour is at rest capable to allocate about 1,5 — 3,0 ml of sweat, and at physical activity — 8 — 12 ml. From this number about 50% of moisture the bottom surface of foot allocates. Moisture, being late in O., causes irritation of skin, an attrition, maceration of a skin epithelium, promoting developing of skin diseases. In summertime in the average climatic zone it is recommended to carry well ventilated O. on a leather sole of the facilitated type.

It is necessary to avoid to use O. with the varnished top since at such O. very weak vozdukho-and vapor permeability. O. high-heeled, with a narrow nosochny part, without back and with the top consisting of narrow thongs since foot in such O. is unstable during the walking cannot be positive; lack of sufficient support of foot from sides (in view of the facilitated top) leads to a rasplastyvaniye of foot and formation of callosities at the basis of a thumb.

Synthetic also are applied to O.'s production along with natural materials: polyvinyl chloride, polyamide, polyester, polyurethane foam, polisti-rolled, etc. O. from synthetics shall have the sufficient chemical stability excluding socks in any conditions (including season and climatic features) release of chemical substances; its electric charge shall not exceed tolerance levels (300 — 400 in on 1 cm).

Synthetics surpass genuine leather in operational properties, but in a gigabyte. the relation on a number of indicators (a moisture capacity, vapor permeability, etc.) concede to it. All types of O. on a rubber sole, including microporous, it is necessary to carry preferential during wet weather. At rubber O.'s carrying it is necessary to use felt insoles both woolen and socks.

By the lake it has to be kept clean. If O. is humidified, it needs to be dried, greased with shoe cream, to take out and dry up insoles. It is not recommended to hold O. close to heating devices. It is necessary to store O. in the dry, ventilated room. It is necessary to use O. individually.

Children's footwear

After the birth of stop of the child forms for many years. By 5 — 7 years the foundation of a bone skeleton of foot is laid, and final ossification comes to the end only by 17 — 18 years. Therefore it is important to prevent from early age the deformation of its pliable cartilaginous skeleton which is easily arising at a sock incorrectly picked up (3. Not corresponding to a season and heating environments of O. causes the overcooling contributing to diseases or the overheating causing the increased perspiration of legs. Legs of the child who is starting walking have a number of features: foot on a forkhma is wider on the ends of fingers, to-rye are located radially; up to 3 — 4 years on a sole fatty laying is well-marked, the cut on the back is not present therefore the vessels located superficially can easily be squeezed; in skin of foot there is a large number of sweat glands, especially on a bottom part. The lake of the child shall not constrain movements of foot, and especially fingers. Therefore at O.'s designing for children consider features of children's foot: the trace shall be a radial form with the wide sock raised up, and a direct inner edge of a trace of a block, modeling of a trace of foot in the horizontal and vertical plane, i.e. with deepening for a heel and a metatarsophalangeal part. Length of an insole O. is done 10 mm more by lengths of foot of the child. At O.'s selection it is necessary to watch that there was a small space between finger-tips of a leg and a sock of footwear (to 10 mm).

The lake on a leg of children of younger age because of not issued foot badly keeps therefore, the less child, the is more important good fixing than it on a leg. For starting walking the best boots are considered, to-rye in connection with different completeness of legs at children it is possible to regulate rather free lacing, but it is not excessive that the boot did not dangle and did not squeeze gentle tissues of a leg of the child. For more senior children (preschool children, school students) in warm season it is more reasonable shoes, sandals, low shoes. They it is easier on weight, have adjustable fastening (thongs on buckles), are well fixed on a leg.

The correct formation of foot depends on calcaneal part O. (a back and a heel) as during the walking and standing on a heel big loading falls. For ensuring stability of a heel the back of a shoe is done extra strong, firm, steady. For children of younger age O. with an open back (sandal) is inadmissible. Though children's O.'s heel is physiologically not reasonable, in most cases it is done with a small heel that is caused by the increased wearability of calcaneal part O. and aspiration to increase the arch of foot, low at children (for improvement of depreciation). The best height of a heel for preschool children are 8 — 10 mm, for younger school students — to 20 and for seniors — 20 — 30 mm.y girls of 15 — 18 years height of a heel shall not exceed 30 mm.

Material for children's O. shall meet certain requirements strictly: for O.'s top it shall be soft, elastic, air-and vapor-permeable, and for a sole rather flexible and waterproof. For summer O.'s top use skin and cotton special fabric of light and colourful tones. For winter O., except top from skin or cloth, the heat-insulation layer is obligatory: fur fabric or the warmed fabric from synfils. Despite nek-ry merits of synthetics and rubber (wear resistance, smaller cost), for O.'s production natural materials (skin, fur, woolen cloth, cotton felt) are preferred to children.

For backpackings special children's shoes and low shoes from chromic skin and a shoe yufta with the leather or warmed textile lining, on soles with a deep corrugation are issued. The special requirements providing convenience during the walking are imposed to ggokhodny O.: dense coverage of foot, the increased durability, ease, good fastening.

Military footwear

In a complex a gigabyte. requirements to military O. special significance is attached to heat-protective properties and water tightness. It shall maintain repeated decontamination and chamber disinfection.

Military O. is subdivided into the main and special. Carry boots to the main footwear (chromic, yuftevy, yuftevy with a heater, with kersey tops), boots and low shoes chromic. Soldier's boots yuftevy and with kersey tops on a porous rubber sole with constant leather insoles — the most widespread unified all-weather military footwear. At the correct operation it protects from cold and moisture, but at long continuous stay on the open area in very cold weather additional warming of feet is necessary. On supply of troops there are soldier's gray valenoks, officer chesanka, and also boots from artificial felt, to-rye, without conceding to traditional valenoks on heat-protective properties, less massivna have higher durability in a sock and the increased resistance to influence of moisture, and also. Since military O. is produced on the principal standard dimensions of feet, its individual adjustment is essential. Adjustment of boots should be carried out in full fighting equipment during the walking, in time the cut of stop is flattened, extended and extends. At adjustment of boots the insock is deleted, legs wrap summer and winter footcloths.

Close O.'s carrying worsens blood circulation in feet, accelerates on - a chair leny exhaustions, increases perspiration, promoting emergence of an intertrigo in summertime and freezing injuries in the winter.

Preservation initial gigabyte. properties O. in null conditions it is provided with timely repair and the correct care of it (regular drying, cleaning of dirt, greasing with shoe ointment), and also care of footcloths (the correct navertyvaniye, drying during a lodging for the night, regular washing with soap). It is not necessary to resort to a forced bake of O. — over a free flame, it is close at marching furnaces, under the open sun since it is deformed.

Carry working protective O. to special military O. (gumboots, rubber boats for electricians, acid resisting gumboots), sanitary (shoes hospital), mountain (boots mountain, boots from a trikonyama). The most high level of protection against harmful and dangerous factors, e.g. OV, dense flows of microwave radiations, etc., is reached by use of the additional footwear which is put on the main.

Sports shoes

Sports shoes intend for occupations different types of sport. The best material for production of the majority of types of sports O. is genuine leather, edges are satisfied with all basic practical also by a gigabyte. to requirements. Rubber O. is characterized by insufficient air permeability and high thermal conductivity. Therefore the gym shoes, widespread in sports practice, produced from proof fabric with a rubber sole release with an elastic hygroscopic insole. During the use of gym shoes it is recommended to put on the woolen socks which are well absorbing sweat legs.

At run on long distances, sports walking, tourist campaigns raznoshenny O. is better new, even than correctly sewed O., edges can cause attritions. Too spacious O. is also unsuitable since legs in it lose stability (e.g., too free boots will complicate management of skis).

Thorns on a sole of sports shoes protect football players from sliding on a grass, especially in rainy weather, allow climbers to go and climb steep ice and snow slopes, and athletes — to run on special (cinder, synthetic, etc.) paths etc. The runners participating in competitions out of stadiums shall enclose surely under a heel the sponge protecting from bruises. For doing winter sports O. having high heat-protective properties is recommended. Winter sports O.'s sizes shall allow use of a warm insole and in need of two pairs of socks. Sports O. should be used only to destination. For preservation a gigabyte. properties O. behind it careful leaving is necessary. After each training and competitions it should be cleared of dust and dirt and to dry in well ventilated room at air temperature 25 — 30 °.

To dry O. on radiators of heating, about fire it is not recommended since at the same time material spoils and O. warps. After drying leather O. is greased with fat or special ointment. O. given for rent (ski, skating) needs to be stored on racks in the dry and well ventilated room, to disinfect periodically for the purpose of prevention of an epidermophitia (it is recommended to put pieces of the rags or newsprint moistened 40% with solution of formalin in boots, then O. is densely papered and place in a bag on 2 days).

Gymnastic shoes shall be easy, elastic and without lacing. Special leather shoes (Czeches) or usual gymnastic shoes on a leather sole concern to them. Nek-ry gymnasts compete at competitions in light cotton slippers, to-rye in order to avoid attritions shall not have rough seams and folds.

Track and field athletics shoes — light leather shoes, without rough seams and folds inside. At sports walking it is recommended to enclose under a heel gas-expanded rubber, felt or felt for mitigation of blow at statement of a leg. To run on short and average distances apply track and field athletics shoes with thorns, and to cross-countries — shoes with an elastic rubber sole (sneaker). Marathoners usually apply tarpaulin shoes, in to-rye the thin insole from matter or skin invests. For occupations jumps in the hall use shoes on a rubber sole or gym shoes, and for occupations at stadium or an arena — sprint shoes with thorns. For pushers of a kernel and throwers of a hammer O. shall have a dense rubber sole. The boots closing an anklebone with a long lacing are preferable to them.

Boxing boots sew from soft elastic skin, with a lacing; they densely clasp an ankle joint. The sole of such boots shall be dense, but rather elastic. It is hemmed by the fleecy party outside for reduction of sliding of legs and the prevention of falling.

Wrestling boots produce from the strong soft skin closing an ankle joint with soft backs and a sole, without heels, welts and nails. On a sole it is reasonable to paste thin rubber (in order to avoid sliding during fight). The ends of laces have no tips and refuel in boots.

Boots for weight-lifters have top from the strong dense skin closing an ankle joint, a strong back, a stupid and wide sock that increases stability at squats, and a dense leather sole with a heel 20 — 30 mm high.

Football boots (boots) shall be lungs; the thorns which are not pointed at them of a hat of nails on thorns and a sole shall not act over their surface (in order to avoid danger of drawing traumatic damages to other players). Lace up boots a band.

Boots for the hockey player are sewed from skin, with a warm lining. Except especially rigid sock and a back, they have additional outside and internal details for protection of foot against blows.

For the basketball player (gym shoes) the area golenostopn shall protect the lake well from damagesoho joint.

The lake of the skier — soft-light leather boots with an elastic sole and a sandalny welt for fastening of skis, a low wide heel and short tops not to obstruct the traffic of a leg in an ankle joint.

Boots for slalom have double top, a thick sole, a rigid back and are supplied in addition with the belt which is pulling together rise. The lake of the jumper from a springboard almost does not differ from O. of the slalomist.

Mountain climbing boots protect legs from cooling, bruises and facilitate movement on rocks, snow or ice. These are leather boots with a thick sole, the fettered trikonyama (special metal thorns) protecting from sliding, or lined with the pro-thinned-out sole from rubber like «vibra». Inside felt insoles 6 — 8 mm thick invest, and the wide film with fasteners protecting from penetration of snow, or small stones is filed to top of a boot.

Orthopedic footwear

Orthopedic footwear — the special footwear intended for people with pathological changes of the lower extremities. Orthopedic O.'s carrying is appointed after the greatest possible correction of the available deformation.

Orthopedic O. promotes improvement of a statics and gait, compensating incurable shortenings and deformations, prevents progressing of the deformations of feet which are giving in to correction, «unloads» painful sites of foot, supports the arch of foot, increases the area of its support, sets results of operational treatment, hides cosmetic defects, improves walking in orthoses.

Existence of two insoles (top and bottom), a special structure of details and existence of special details is characteristic of orthopedic O.

Orthopedic O. is produced by the prosthetic and orthopedic enterprises. The doctor establishes indications for orthopedic O.'s appointment and defines its design. The technician takes measurements: makes obcherk feet in a stocking or a sock a pencil in position of the patient sitting at possible correction of foot; notes the locations of heads of I and V plusnevy bones. At sharply expressed deformations it is made also profile obcherk feet with capture of a shin. Length of foot is measured on a bottom contour. The circle of foot at the level of heads of plusnevy bones, through a sole at the level of Lisfrank's joint (a tarsus-plusnevye joints), through a bend of an ankle joint and a calcaneal hillock is measured; at the order of boots the circle over anklebones and a grasp of a shin — for footwear with high bootlegs is measured. For detection of the provision of ledges on a bottom surface of foot the print of naked foot at loading by means of a plantogra-f becomes (see. Plantografiya ).

Fig. 2. Model for production of orthopedic footwear: and — a form — a negative; — a plaster cast — a positive.

For difficult orthopedic O.'s production the plaster cast of foot becomes. In position of the patient sitting naked foot and a shin bandage the plaster bandage moistened in warm water. Bandaging is begun from fingers and follow to the upper bound of the lower third of a shin, do 3 — 4 layers. The negative (plaster mold) shall reflect the provision of the loaded foot. The bandage is cut from the inside and on the middle of a sole on in advance enclosed cord, then it is removed. The dried negative (fig. 2, a) serves as approximate model for production as a manual way of a wooden block; the negative is used and as a form of an outflow of a positive — a mold (fig. 2,6), to-ry later finish machining can serve as a plaster block for production of footwear. If it is necessary to reflect the slightest details of a form of foot, then produce a plaster print. For this purpose foot is lowered in plaster porridge. After hardening gypsum is cut. The negative is finished in a form and cast a positive (print).

At orthopedic O.'s order use nek-ry special terms: bunches — heads of plusnevy bones; a gelenok — the subarch-naya a part of foot; an instep support — the insole lifting an inner edge of foot; the pronator — the insole lifting the outer edge of foot; Zeytts's roller — an eminence with flat edges for maintenance of the cross arch behind average heads of plusnevy bones; internal side support — an insert from the dense skin which is built in in O. from its internal party; a side corset — an insert from more rigid material, a fascinating ankle joint; a rigid bootleg — the rigid side tire which is built in in O.; the supplementary shoe (cosmetic adaptation) forms an orthopedic basis, on to-ruyu standard or orthopedic O. at short, basic stumps of foot is put on; helmets — an insert, a heel-tap on the heel or a sock intended for compensation of length or deformation of an extremity.

Fig. 3. A boot for the leg shortened over 18 cm (at the left). Fig. 4. A boot for a leg with the paralyzed foot (on the right).

Basic purpose of orthopedic products during the shortening of an extremity — alignment funkts, lengths of extremities. Shortening to 20 mm is compensated for the account of a so-called supplementary kosk or its combination to increase in height of a heel of this polupara by 10 — 15 mm. During the shortening of an extremity to 40 mm use the compensator of shortening — a special insole with a visor back; the insole invests under a stocking that allows to carry open for the Lake. During the shortening to 5 cm also supplementary shoe or orthopedic footwear with Cos under a heel is applied. During the shortening from 6 cm to 18 cm in an orthopedic boot the wedge-shaped stopper iod all trace, but under a heel above, than under fingers is enclosed. During the shortening of St. 18 cm appoint O. with a double trace (fig. 3).

At defect of a thumb the sole is strengthened a metal plate. At defect of all fingers except a plate the orthopedic insole with support of the arches is shown. At basic stumps at the level of Lisfrank's joint and a joint of III it ra (a cross joint of a tarsus) supplementary shoes or orthopedic footwear on a mold are shown. The sole in such O. is strengthened by a metal plate, there is an abrupt calculation of the longitudinal arches, the calcaneal department is deepened, the heel is slanted outside because of a tendency of a heel to supination. Defect of foot is filled with a stopper, rubber or the rigid extended saddle is applied.

At the drooping paralyzed foot orthopedic boots with a double lacing by means of an additional cuff in a cavity of a boot are recommended. Boots and low shoes with a rubber tyanka and a cuff are applied when the otvisaniye of foot is followed by such defects in front department of foot as supination, pronation, reduction, and also at looseness of foot without incomplete dislocations in an ankle joint. Corrective elements can be executed in the form of a supplementary orthopedic insole. At the drooping foot and looseness of an ankle joint orthopedic O. is supplemented with rigid bootlegs (fig. 4).

At to horse foot (see) its bottom bending at an angle to 100 ° compensate by increase in height of a heel of normal footwear or Cos under a heel. At the provision of foot at an angle 100 — 110 ° is appointed helmets under a heel. Because of funkts, lengthenings it is sick!! legs appoint helmets under a heel healthy an ing and for alignment of their length. Women in such cases manage footwear high-heeled. At horse foot with bottom bending 110 — 130 ° and more appoint ortopedpchesky O. on a mold; at unstable deformation — rigid bootlegs, the raised calculation of the arches, the pronator of front department of foot, artificial helmets from a stopper.

Fig. 5. The boots recommended at a clubfoot.

At the corrected O.'s clubfoot produce on a valgus block with the pronator for all foot, without calculation of the arches, with a rigid back, the internal wing to-rogo proceeds to a head of the I plusnevy bone (fig. 5). At nevypravlennop the fixed O.'s clubfoot does on a mold with a rigid internal bootleg. For increase in side stability and compensation of reduction and supination the figured heel is taken out by knaruzh, and its outer edge is prolonged to a gelenka (a subsummary part of foot). Ekvinusny situation is compensated Cos or a stopper. In a pith insole do unloading selection according to painful sites and reliefs. Lakes supply with an artificial rift through a heel and under puchkovy department of a sole.

At to calcaneal foot (see) in case of unstable deformation foot is given ekvinusny situation, the heel and a stopper are taken out by kzad. Restriction of a back inflection is reached by use of the springing metal plates. The rift is created artificially — by means of a felt wheel, felt. Opornaya Square of a sole increases due to deepening under a heel. If foot is not removed to an ekvinus, then appoint O. with the return Cos. The difference in length of feet is compensated pith Cos. Produce O. on a plaster cast.

At hollow foot in case of unstable deformation — in O. raise to the pereena internal and posteroexternal departments of a mezhstelech-ny layer for «untwisting» it is full of foot. It is possible to be limited to the supplementary orthopedic insole constructed by the same principle. At the fixed O.'s deformation produce on a plaster cast. The flattened calculation of the longitudinal arches to heads of plusnevy bones and to front department of a calcaneus becomes; under a heel — deepening, the pronator of front department of foot to 15 mm depending on the size of omission of the I plusnevy bone; under bunches for improvement of a rift — soft laying.

At a varus of a heel the heel is carried by knaruzh and appoint internal side support.

At unstable longitudinal flat-footedness the orthopedic insole or a semi-insole made of a stopper, skin, rubber, plastic and other materials invests in usual O. The calculation of the internal and outside longitudinal arches, deepening under a heel is provided in an insole. At a combination of longitudinal flat-footedness with cross in an insole Zeytts's roller is added.

At ploskovalgusny deformation of foot orthopedic O. with a rigid bertsvkhm, with alignment of the area of a support a stopper, support of the longitudinal arches is shown; at an unstable valgus of a heel — an instep support of calcaneal department.

At hallux valgus O. do wide in bunches, with the calculation of the longitudinal and cross arches, with a nest for a head of the I plusnevy bone, a high sock.

Production footwear (protective)

Production footwear (protective) is intended for protection of the legs working from harmful and dangerous production factors.

Mounting, repair, and also handling works are connected with danger of traumatizing legs.

Quite often danger of getting injured arises because of sliding on zazhirenny floors or on an ice-covered surface. At machine-building enterprises hit on legs of oils, emulsions, cooling liquids is possible; in chemical, oil processing and petrochemical industries — concentrated to - t, alkalis, organic solvents, oil products; in hot workshops — splashes and molten metal etc.

The production footwear made of skin, rubber and polymeric materials is divided into the following types: boots, semi-boots, boots, low shoes, shoes, chuvyak etc. (GOST 12.4.017 — 76 and 12.4.022—75).

For providing normal working conditions protective footwear shall be strong, convenient and it is reliable to protect legs of the person. Optimum combination operational, protective and gigabyte. such O.'s qualities are reached by development of the corresponding designs, materials and the choice of a method of connection of separate details of footwear (see. Shoe industry ). For the prevention of defeat by a current the industry footwear from dielectric materials is issued (galoshes, boats, boots dielectric, shoes, chuvyak antistatic).

Operational properties of footwear substantially depend on the material applied to production of a sole and also on a method of its fastening. Leather substitutes have resistance, higher in comparison with skin, to attrition, compression, a bend and a gap, bigger elasticity and small heat conductivity.

Depending on methods of fastening of a sole leather production footwear is subdivided on screw, wooden shpilechnuyu, filar and glue. E.g., at a glue method when the sole and an insole are not punctured through, the possibility of penetration of moisture into footwear decreases.

Correctly picked up design of special footwear also promotes increase in its protective and operational properties. E.g., for work in hot workshops it is reasonable to produce boots with the deaf valves and fasteners allowing to remove in case of need quickly them.

Satisfactory gigabyte. protective O.'s indicators are reached by selection of materials and designs. To provide branch and evaporation of the sweat emitted by foot use rather moisture capacious material, especially in the layer turned to foot. If outside details of footwear are made of material of a small moisture capacity, then use intermediate and lining details from the fabric possessing a bolgiy moisture capacity. Than quicker process of absorption of moisture and its evaporation, tvkhm gigiyenichny footwear proceeds. In a gigabyte. the purposes also use of stockings, footcloths is recommended, especially during the carrying a rezinovor! footwear. For protective O., edge rushes during change, it is necessary that the moisture absorbed by it during this time managed to evaporate completely for the period, on to-ry footwear acts from legs.

Before delivery in operation protective O. is stored in spetsialr13irovan-ny warehouses. Leather special footwear store in the dry covered warehouse at relative humidity 55% and t ° 8 — 16 °. At the lowered relative humidity and elevated temperature of storage humidity of its leather and other details decreases that involves reduction of the size and deformation of footwear. High air humidity at storage also causes deformation of footwear — its top morshchinitsya.

At the same time on a surface and in footwear the mold is formed, and also corrosion of metal accessories is observed. Rubber O. should be stored in the dry rooms protected from action of direct sunshine at the room temperature at distance not less than 1 m from heating devices.

Protective footwear shall be assigned to each worker individually since transfer of footwear from one worker to another can lead to distribution of fungus diseases of skin. Therefore before transfer of footwear to other person it should be disinfected. For this purpose it is necessary to wipe carefully an inner surface of 10% with solution of formaldehyde with addition of 5% of solution of monochloroamine, to turn in a film or paper on 1 — 2 hour, and then to air.

Footwear in the medicolegal relation

the Occasion for court. - medical researches O. existence on it of the damages or characteristic imposings and pollution which arose in connection with traumatization of the person is. At O.'s examination data on the tool and the mechanism of its action, on circumstances of incident can be obtained. So, at collision of the moving car or other type of transport with the person on his O.'s sole (sometimes and on side surfaces) as a result of friction about soil or a paving there can be traces of sliding. They have an appearance of parallel lines, expressiveness to-rykh depends on properties of material of a sole, road surfacing and localization of blow. The direction, form and arrangement of traces of sliding indicate position of a body at the time of blow, and the foreign particulates found in them — character of soil or a paving. O.'s damages during the moving by a wheel are peculiar: O.'s deformation in the side or vertical direction, depending on position of a leg, with ruptures of materials and separations of parts, napr, a heel or all sole, a print of a protector of the tire or a strip of pressure, and on the opposite side — implementation of particles of the earth, sand, coal, etc. On tops (a golenochny part), socks, O.'s backs there can be traces of drawing in the form of the parallel defects and stertost of material merging in strips. Characteristic damages of O. are noted at the mutilation committed by way of a shot to a leg and also by means of the cutting tool or the vehicle. On the planes of a section or a razrub of rubber, synthetics, nek-ry kinds of leather, and also at the bottom of superficial notches there can be traces of a relief of a trimming blade of the tool suitable for its identification. At an electric trauma (in case of single-pole inclusion) on O.'s soles there can be signs of an exit of current: oplavleniye of metal parts and nails, gaps etc. At action of a high-tension current, both technical, and lightnings, the treelike branching drawing similar to «figures of a lightning» on integuments of a body is sometimes formed.

Traces of imposings and pollution on O. (pollution by the earth, sand, limy, brick, coal dust etc., the remains of seeds of cereals, herbs and other particles of plants) can be connected with stay of the person in a certain place, and sometimes and time of incident. Traces on O. can indicate also character of an event: a trace of rubber tires of the car or other transport, lubricating oils, rusts — on transport incident, traces of a close shot — on fire damage. Availability of blood on O.'s soles of the dead along with other data demonstrates movement of the receiving damage which was injured later; blood on O.'s soles of the suspect can be connected with his stay on site of an event etc.

The research of damages and imposings on O. can be made in the course of examination of damages on a body of the victim or in the form of the independent examination appointed by the investigator. Depending on character of traces along with visual survey apply various a lab. methods. The obtained data are estimated in a complex with results of a research of injuries of a body. Negative results of survey and research O. can have evidentiary value; so, lack of characteristic traces in cases when their emergence is inevitable, together with other circumstances can demonstrate movement of a corpse, and thereby about time and the scene.

At court. - it is investigated to medical examination of corpses of unknown persons of O. for the purpose of identification.

Bibliography: Betekhtin V. A. Practical guidance on the prosthetic equipment, L., 1940; About r about d and N with to and y S. M. Individual protection equipment for works with radioactive materials, M., 1979; Kupchin A. P. Individual protection equipment working at a factory, M., 1977; To at with t and N about - in and the p C. D. Research of damages of clothes to medicolegal practice, M., 1965; Laboratory and special methods of a research in forensic medicine, under the editorship of V. of II. Pashkova and V. V. Tomilin, M., 1975: Markova 3. Page, With and at - t and N A. I. and Rapoport of K. A. Gigiyen clothes and footwear, M., 1907; Minkh A. A. Sketches on hygiene of physical exercises and sport, page 235, M., 1976; Minkh A. A. and M and l y sh e-in and I. N. Bases of the general and sports hygiene, M., 1972; Experience of the Soviet medicine in the Great Patriotic War of 1941 — 1945, t. 33, page 256, M., 1955; Pereladova O. L. Hygiene of a kidswear, Kiev, 1977; List of the best individual protection equipment, sost. L. N. Kireenkova, etc., M., 1976; The Guide to prosthetics, under the editorship of N. I. Kondrashin, page 384, M., 1976; With and at t and N A. I. and Krasnov B. Ya. Hygienic properties of footwear from artificial materials, M., 1974; The Reference book on prosthetics, under the editorship of V. I. Filatov, page 219, L., 1978; Startseva T. E. Philosophy of creation of orthopedic footwear for stumps of feet, Protezir. and protezostroyen., century 40, page 30, 1977; Works of the 4th Plenum concerning treatment of diseases and deformations of feet and providing the population with rational footwear, M., 1972; Encyclopaedic dictionary of military medicine, t. 3, Art. 1446, M., 1948; R e-g e n s r u of g e r G. Orthopadische Einla-gen-und Schuhversorgimg, Lpz., 1975.

A. I. Sautin; S. M. Gorodinsky (proizv.), A. P. Zagryadskaya (court.), V. P. Illarionov (sport.), G. N. Kramarenko (ORT.), B. Mikhaylov (soldier.), O. L. Pereladova (it is put.).