From Big Medical Encyclopedia

FOOD TREATMENT-AND-PROPHYLACTIC — specially picked up food allowances directed to the prevention of the disturbances in an organism caused by influence of harmful professional factors. The philosophy of selection of a diet of specific structure is pathogenetic validity taking into account the mechanism of action of the prof. of a factor.

Depending on the nature of a harmful factor and the nature of its action on P.'s organism of l. - the item is developed on the basis of use of antidotal properties of separate components of food, acceleration or delay of a metabyulizm of poisons depending on features biol, effects of substances or their metabolites, accelerations of removal of toxic agents from an organism, delays of processes of absorption of toxic agents in went. - kish. a path, increases in the general stability of an organism, impact of separate feedstuffs on a condition of the most struck bodies, compensations of the raised expenses of the food and biologically active agents connected with influence of harmful factors.

Exclusive role in P. of l. - the item belongs to proteins, to-rye depending on features of the mechanism of effect of specific chemical substance can give multidirectional effect. It is established that the proteins especially rich with sulfur-containing amino acids promote formation of the readily soluble and quickly allocated from an organism connections, and also can participate in binding of toxic agents. At the same time at some intoxications restriction in a diet of protein, including rich with sulfur-containing amino acids since in this case processes of a detoxication of poison are broken is necessary.

For fats still more than for proteins, divergence of action depending on features of intoxication is characteristic. Fats accelerate absorption of many poisons from a digestive tract. Besides, fat-soluble harmful connections or their metabolites are capable to be deposited in fatty tissue. Carbohydrate diet, stimulating barrier function of a liver, promotes increase in resistance of an organism to toxic influence of a number of substances.

Increase in stability of an organism to some chemical poisons under the influence of vitamins is well-marked. Detoksitsiruyushchy properties ascorbic to - you, vitamins of group B, phthiocols and D are known. From mineral elements in prevention of intoxications calcium, iron and magnesium are of great importance. Expediency of inclusion in structure of a diet of G1 is rather reasonable. l. - the item of pectic substances.

Drawing up diets of P. of l. - by the item it is based on the correspondence principle of preventive activity of a diet to specifics of influence of the prof. of factors. Harmful substances at the same time combine on the basis of uniformity of the mechanism of their action. The look and volume of preventive foods are defined by character of the acting agent, duration of contact with it, conditions of the production environment. At the same time the preventive orientation of a diet is provided with respect for the general principles of the concept balanced food (see). In the USSR depending on a type of profvrednost P.'s appointment of l. - the item is made on one of five operating diets (tab). The list of productions, professions, the positions granting the right for free receiving treatment-and-prophylactic food in connection with harmful working conditions, and diets of this food are approved by the resolution of the State committee of the USSR on WORK and social problems and Presidium of the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions.

For the workers who are affected by high temperature, to intensive heatradiation both occupied in tobacco and tobacco and nicotinic productions, delivery only of a complex of vitamins is provided.

Delivery of treatment-and-prophylactic food is made in the form of hot breakfasts or lunches.

Preparation and delivery of food and polyneuramins strict compliance with the diets and norms approved for separate productions are carried out by catering establishments with which the administration of the industrial enterprises signs the relevant agreements.

Control of P.'s delivery to l. - the item and vitamins workers of medical and sanitary parts and health centers will see off. Responsibility for providing the l working with P. - the item is assigned to heads of the industrial enterprise, and for correctness of preparation of food according to the approved diets and drawing up the menu — to the director of catering establishment. General control of the organization P. of l. - items carry out the ministries, departments, the relevant healthcare institutions and trade-union bodies.

In addition to P. of l. - the item, in the USSR provided daily delivery of milk to the workers who are constantly contacting to many toxicants. Delivery of milk is regulated «By rules of free delivery of milk or other equivalent foodstuff to the workers and employees occupied in productions, workshops, on sites and in other divisions with harmful working conditions», approved by the State committee of the USSR on work and social problems and Presidium of the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions.

See also Food .


Bibliography: Bondarev G. I. and Vissarionova of V. Ya. Pitaniye as factor of prevention of occupational diseases, Vopr, pitas., No. 6, page 6, 1980; Harmful substances in the industry, under the editorship of N. V. Lazarev, etc., t. 1 — 3, L., 1976 — 1977; The Scientific and technical forecast for a problem «The main directions of scientific research in the field of receiving high-quality food stuffs on the basis of scientific achievements of agriculture, biology, chemistry, biochemistry and microbiology», under the editorship of A. Pokrovsky, t. 1, M., 1971; The List of productions, professions and positions in which work grants the right for free receiving treatment-and-prophylactic food in connection with especially harmful working conditions, M., 1977; Shevchenko M. G., Stremlin S. M. and Mirochnik F. M. A practical grant for health officers on hygiene of food, M. 1974.

G. I. Bondarev.