FOOD DYES — the substances intended for coloring of some foodstuff and drinks for the purpose of improvement of their outward.
The item to. are subdivided into two groups: the natural dyestuffs containing natural colored compounds of plant or animal origin, and the synthetic dyes representing the chemical connections which are not found in the nature.
Natural P. to. usually represent the acid or fatty high-concentrated extracts or dry drugs from nontoxic, most often edible plants. The main colorants of red natural dyestuffs are anthocyans and other flavonoids, and also betanin; yellow dyes contain carotene, nek-ry flavonoids, carotinoids, curcumine. Natural P. to. about a gigabyte. it is more preferable than the point of view synthetic since most of them — carotene, carotinoids, anthocyans — are a natural component of foodstuff.
Synthetic dyes represent the drugs of strictly certain degree of purity produced by the industry in the form of powders or pastes. However use of synthetic dyes in the food industry is reduced. From synthetic P.' group to. in the USSR use of only two dyes is authorized: indigo carmine (blue) and tartrazine (yellow).
Physical. - chemical properties and purity of the released P. to. shall meet the requirements of the normative and technical documents coordinated with M3 of the USSR. The number of P. entered into a product to. shall not exceed the minimum necessary for giving to a product of the color characteristic of natural fruit, berries, etc. P.'s maintenance to. in products it is caused by the operating compoundings and technological instructions coordinated with M3 of the USSR. The sanitary legislation of the USSR defines natural and synthetic P.' list to., and also types of products, to-rye it is allowed to tint, and maximum allowable concentrations of P. to. in foodstuff or drinks (tab).
The item to. before implementation in production of foodstuff are exposed to a careful toksiko-hygienic research on laboratory animals. Special attention is paid on identification possible cancerogenic, teratogenic and mutagen effects of the studied P. to. At the international level toksiko-hygienic assessment of P. to. carries out WHO.
For definition of concentration of P. to. in foodstuff methods of a stratographic analysis, a spektrofoto-metriya, specific staining chemical reactions can be used.
See also Nutritional supplements .
Table. The NATURAL AND SYNTHETIC FOOD DYES ALLOWED In the USSR FOR COLOURING of FOODSTUFF AND THEIR EXTREME CONCENTRATION IN the PAINTED PRODUCTS
Bibliography: Methods of the analysis of food, agricultural products and medical supplies, the lane with English, under the editorship of A. F. Namestnikov, page 530, M., 1974; M about-rozovag. I. Identification of synthetic food dyes by method of a thin-layer chromatography, Vopr, pitas., t. 36, No. 1, page 85, 1977; Kharlamova O. A. and Kafka B. W. Natural food dyes, M., 1979, bibliogr.; Drake J. J. Food colors-harmless, esthetics og epicuriean luxuries? Toxicology, v. 5, p. 3, 1975, bibliogr.
A. H. Hares.