FOODSTUFF

From Big Medical Encyclopedia

FOODSTUFF — the products of an animal and plant origin used in native, the processed or processed look in food of the person. Plants, their parts or the substances emitted from them, napr, sugar, starch, fats, oils, proteic matters, etc. belong to Pct of a plant origin. Carcasses of birds, fishes, meat and separate bodies of animals, and also products of their life activity (milk, eggs) belong to Pct of animal origin.

Nutrition, biological and energy value of Pct is defined by the content in them of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, mineral elements, vitamins, organic to - t, flavoring and aromatic substances (tab. 1). Nutrition value of Pct of subjects is higher, than more corresponds to a formula balanced food (see). Biol, the value of Pct reflects the quality of proteinaceous components of a product depending on digestibility of protein and its amino-acid structure. Energy value, or caloric content, P. p, is characterized by amount of energy which is released from feedstuffs in process biol, oxidations and used for providing fiziol, functions of an organism. Approximately assimilable energy of 1 g of proteins and carbohydrates is accepted by equal 4 kcal, and 1 g of fats of equal 9 kcal though energy value of various groups of carbohydrates and fats is not identical.

The majority of Pct on chemical structure — mnogokomponentna, but are available also so-called monoproducts, napr, sugar, vegetable oils and melted animal fats.

Proteins — the most valuable, irreplaceable part of Pct in the food relation. The richest source of complete proteins are animal products — meat, fish, milk and dairy products, eggs. Proteins contain in these products in neobkhodimokhm quantity all irreplaceable amino acids and easily give in to splitting by proteolytic enzymes went. - kish. a path that promotes their good assimilation. An important source of proteins — nek-ry vegetable products, especially bean. But phytalbumins, in particular proteins of cereals, contain such amino acids as tryptophane, a lysine and methionine a little. Therefore proteins of Pct of animal origin in fiziol, the relation are 1,5 times more effective, than proteins of vegetable products (see. Proteins, in food ).

In addition to fatty products (see) rich sources of fats meat and meat products, nek-ry species of fish and dairy products, seeds and fruits of some plants are. Fats of these Pct differ on the properties that is caused by structure entering them fat to - t. Seed fats contain a lot of irreplaceable polyunsaturated fat to - the t (to 70%) which are carrying out an important role in a metabolism and also physiologically active agents — carotinoids, tokoferola, phosphatides, sitosterol. (Except fish) in a significant amount are a part of fats of animal Pct firm sated to - you (St. 50%) and in very small — polyunsaturated to - you, however they are rich with Retinolum and vitamins of group D (see. Fats, in food ).

In Pct of a plant origin 80% of nonvolatile solids average carbohydrates (see) — sugar, starch, cellulose, hemicelluloses and pectic substances. The Sahara and starch are the main power material of food. Cellulose, hemicelluloses and pectin, almost indigestible in went. - kish. a path (so-called ballast substances), make impact on motive function of intestines.

Vegetable Pct — the main suppliers ascorbic to - you and bioflavonoids, and also rich sources of mineral substances most of which part is presented by salts of the main character that is important in maintenance of acid-base equilibrium in blood and other liquids of an organism.

A variety of Pct gives the chance to completely provide a balanced diet of the person.

Meat products include meat of the lethal cattle, a bird and game, an offal, and also products from them. Meat (see) — the most valuable food stuff thanks to the high content of complete animal protein (from 14 to 21%). Biol, the value of meat of various animals and birds depends not so much on composition of its proteins how many from the content in it of fat, a cut fluctuates from 1% in lean veal to 40 — 50% in fat pork.

Fish products combine big group of products of fish raw materials (see. Fishes as foodstuff ). Protein content in meat of food fishes fluctuates from 12 to 22%, fat — from 0,4 to 30%.

In a significant amount are a part of fish fats irreplaceable polyunsaturated fat to - you and vitamins. Fish products are valuable as well contents important in fiziol, the relation of mineral substances — compounds of phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, iron and many microelements, including iodine.

Dairy products contain proteins high biol, values, the emulsified digestible fat, a large number of well assimilable compounds of calcium and phosphorus, vitamins — Retinolum, cholecalciferol, vitamins of group B (see. Milk, dairy products ). Are of special value lactic products (see).

The major among grain products (see) is flour (see) — the main raw materials for production of bread, bakery and pasta. Grain (see) — a product of processing of grain, the second for value. The share of these products in food of the population of our country makes about 30 — 35% on caloric content. They are the main supplier of phytalbumin and starch.

Vegetables (see) and fruit (see) take the important place in food of the person thanks to the maintenance of a wide range of mineral substances, vitamins, various carbohydrates, organic to - t and aromatic substances. The last strengthen activity of digestive glands, promoting the best digestion of food. Fruits and vegetables — the main source ascorbic to - you in food of the person. Mushrooms (see) do not treat Pct of daily food and are used as products of flavoring appointment.

In the majority of natural Pct the disproportion in contents and a ratio of irreplaceable factors of food — amino acids, polyunsaturated fat to - t, vitamins, some mineral substances takes place. For satisfaction of need of an organism for irreplaceable amino acids combinations of Pct by the principle of mutual addition of missing amino acids and increases by that biol, values of total food composition are reasonable. The combination of grain products with milk and meat is favorable. Introduction, e.g., to bread of 3% of skim milk (per dry weight) leads to substantial increase biol, value and comprehensibility of its proteinaceous component. Easily digested, thanks to contents low-molecular fat to - t, milk fat is poor, however, essential on linenasyshchenny to-tami. This defect is eliminated in special dairy products for baby and dietary food by enrichment by their vegetable mayela containing a lot of irreplaceable linoleic to - you (enrichment of Pct is an addition with their missing substances).

In food also specially prepared and other Pct imitating on flavoring properties (it is frequent also by outward) the corresponding natural products are used. This group of Pct is known under the name of substitutes. Use in food of substitutes in some cases is justified from the medical point of view. Products in which sugar is replaced with artificial edulcorant substances are necessary a sick diabetes mellitus.

The problem of production and use in food of substitutes of Pct gains new value because the modern level of development of chemistry and food technology allowed to approach the solution of a problem of creation of artificial food closely. At the same time such Pct mean, to-rye, having the tastes similar to natural, would have also high nutrition value. By use of the purified proteins received in various industrial ways in combination with the substances defining taste, and giving to these products of a certain structure full-fledged proteinaceous products are created, to-rye shall fill shortage of food protein on our planet. Examples of such products are the artificial caviar, substitutes of meat prepared from phytalbumins.

The big contribution to creation of artificial food was made by the Soviet chemists. The academician A. N. Nesmeyanov was an initiator of this direction of science in our country.

Substitutes of natural products allow to solve a number of urgent problems of a dietotherapy: the fatty products containing less than 50% of fat and intended for prevention of obesity are created; cheeses and substitutes of eggs, free of cholesterol, etc. Substitutes of women's milk find broad application in food of children of early age. Thus, the products which were called originally as substitutes gain the increasing independent value in food of the person, and the term becomes less common, giving way to the name «substitute».

The hidden disturbance of structure and properties of Pct as a result of replacement of a part of a product with another leading to change of its nutrition value (without the knowledge of the consumer), and also use of the methods of processing masking damage or other defects of a product is called falsification of Pct. In the conditions of socialist economy of the USSR where production of Pct and their implementation through retail chain stores are in hands of the state, the possibility of falsification of Pct is almost excluded. The socialist state constantly cares for high quality of products.

Pct can be the reason of diseases or poisonings. Deficit in a diet of any irreplaceable substance quite often leads to emergence of a number of diseases. The diseases connected with insufficiency of various vitamins concern to them (see. Vitamin deficiency ) and other feedstuffs. In some cases Pct may contain components, harmful to the person, defiant food poisonings (see). Can be their reasons emergence in Pct of toxic components, pollution of products during technological processing, their damage under the influence of bacteria, wrong consumption of inedible plants, poisonous mushrooms.

The resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and Council of ministers of the USSR «About measures for further improvement of national health care» (1977) provided falloff of the acute diseases connected with the use of substandard Pct. For the solution of this task the ministries and departments participating in production and implementation of Pct carry out system of actions for observance of sanitary and technological conditions by production, transportation and implementation of Pct, and also on further improvement of the cities and rural settlements. Control of observance dignity. - a gigabyte. standards and rules the dignity is carried out by bodies and institutions. - epid. services M3 of the USSR, Ministries of Health of federal republics and departmental dignity. services, and control of compliance to the turned-out food products to requirements of the standard — inspectorates for quality of foodstuff of various ministries and departments. Collaboration of bodies state dignity. supervision and state. inspectorates for quality provides receipt for implementation of quality Pct.

The main criterion at a dignity. to examination of quality of Pct its compliance to GOST is. In some cases «Technical specifications» (TU) are used. The standard contains data on the nature of a product, rules of its acceptance and testing methods. The methods of researches brought in GOST are obligatory during the definition of quality of Pct. Requirements to a container and packaging of a product, its transportation are provided in GOST, terms and storage conditions, rules of marking are defined.

Examination of possible pollution of Pct noxious to health substances is based on control of observance of the instructions regulating use of chemical substances by production of Pct, and if necessary includes carrying out the direct analysis of products on contents in them alien substances.

Perishable foodstuff — meat, fish, milk and dairy products, ready culinary dishes and semi-finished products, berries, some types of vegetables, soft drinks, etc. At damage nutrition value of products is lost and danger of food poisonings as a result of reproduction in foodstuff of microorganisms and accumulation of toxicants appears. The nature of changes of products at damage depends on their chemical structure, the reasons causing damage and storage conditions. Process of damage has multistage character and is followed by formation of numerous afterproducts. At damage of meat and fish as a result of life activity of microorganisms processes of rotting develop. Proteolytic enzymes of putrefactive microbes cause the proteolysis on peptides and amino acids. As a result of decarboxylation of amino acids the amines giving off-flavor to products and having toxicity are formed (e.g., a histamine). In the products containing nitrites to participation of microorganisms there is a formation of the nitrosamines possessing cancerogenic action. Damage of fats is connected with hydrolysis of triglycerides, release of glycerin and fat to - t, to-rye are exposed to oxidation, causing rancidification of fats and change of their organoleptic properties. Oxidation amplifies under the influence of a sunlight.

The main signs of damage of products — change of their organoleptic properties, outward and chemical indicators of quality established to GOST.

Shelf-lifes of products, including and perishable, are established depending on a type of a product, temperature of storage and humidity in (tab. 2).

Apply different types to delay of the processes leading to damage of products conservations (see), pasteurization (see), carry out storage at low temperatures. Besides, for prevention of bystry damage of products, enter the certain substances resolved as nutritional supplements into them — preservatives, antioxidants and their synergists (see. Nutritional supplements ). These additives enter only when other ways of extension of a shelf-life of products are insufficiently effective. Use of the preserving substances is regulated by «Health regulations on use of nutritional supplements». Gained distribution and such methods as gamma irradiation, snap-freezing, use of protective films for refrigerating storage, packaging of products in vacuum. They not only increase a shelf-life without administration of the preserving additives, but also give the chance to better keep organoleptic properties. Safety of nutrition value and harmlessness of perishable goods is provided with system a gigabyte. the actions including microbiological control of products in the course of their production, control of observance of the established GOST corrected storages and implementations of perishable goods. In 1981 Temporary recommendations about microbiological standards for a number of especially perishable Pct

Foodstuff of the sea

by Raw materials for production of these Pct are approved sea fish and so-called not fish objects of trade serves: seaweed, Crustacea, mollusks, erinaceouses and mammals (whales, Pinnipedia) living in the seas and oceans. Meat of a number of mollusks and Crustacea is a delicacy, however many marine organisms, first of all fish, shrimps and small crustaceans (krill) — a widespread source of food protein. Protein content in fillet of a squid of 18%, in meat of the Far East shrimp of 18,9%, in mussels of 8,9 — 11,7%, in a scallop of 17,5%, in whale meat of 22,5%. Seaweed are much poorer in protein; e.g., the laminaria contains 0,9% of protein. Also the amino-acid composition of proteins of many Pct of the sea is studied; a row from them contains insufficient amount of essential amino acids: phenylalanine, tyrosine and valine (in meat of a squid), methionine and cysteine (in the Ocean paste produced from a krill).

The amino-acid structure of seaweed is not optimum for food of the person. In Japan seaweed use not only for preparation of a number of dishes, but also for extraction glutaminic to - you which is used as flavoring seasoning to food, but at excess consumption leads to development of a so-called disease of the Chinese restaurants (see. Glyutamat of sodium ).

Content of fat in meat of the called mollusks makes 0,3 — 2,5%, in Ocean paste — 6,8%, in whale meat — apprx. 3,2%. Fat of marine animals is rich polyunsaturated fat to-tami.

Foodstuff of the sea is a source of a number of vitamins; e.g., in Ocean paste the maintenance of Folacinum (folic to - you) makes 36 mg! 100 g. At the same time, use of bodies of a number of marine animals (e.g., a liver of seals and toothy whales) in food of the person dangerously because of the high content of Retinolum that can lead to development of a hypervitaminosis And (see. Hypervitaminoses ).

The organisms living in sea water have ability to concentrate in themselves mineral substances. It, on the one hand, does them by a valuable source of chemical elements necessary for the person, and with another — creates a possibility of accumulation in them of poisonous metals and radionuclides in quantities, dangerous to the person. Nek-ry types of algas are known for ability to accumulate iodine and bromine. In a laminaria iodine collects as a part of mono - and diiodotyrosine, a diyodtironin and thyroxine, to-rye, arriving with food, inorganic compounds of iodine influence the person stronger, than. The laminaria is widely recommended for prevention of iodic insufficiency, atherosclerosis, at diseases of a thyroid gland, however, cases of an adverse effect of excess consumption of seaweed on a thyroid gland of the person are described. High content in seaweed of ballast substances at low energy value of this food stuff (5 kcal on 100 g of a laminaria) draws attention to them during the development of diets with the increased content of ballast substances.

Worldwide the lack of food protein is noted, and the important place in its elimination is allocated to products of the sea. By approximate estimates in 1977 the mankind used only 73 500 000 t of marine organisms at biol, productivity of the ocean in hundreds of billions tons. Use of products of the sea is limited to a number of factors: difficulties of extraction of biomass of plankton (for extraction of 1 t of biomass it should filter 1 000 000 m 3 waters), reduction of stocks of a number of traditional production facilities, toxicity of many marine organisms.

WHO carried out the analysis of the incidence connected with processing and use of foodstuff of the sea. Are noted bacterial inf. diseases and intoxications, viral diseases, poisonings caused by use in food of poisonous marine animals, and also mollusks and rakobbrazny in whom poisonous microseaweed live. Through the animals living in the sea causative agents of parasitic diseases — trematodes, tape-worms, nematodes can come to a human body.

Pollution of the seas and oceans waste of chemical productions — heavy metals, biphenyls, oil products, and also page - x. toxic chemicals leads to intake of these substances through food chains in a human body. The outbreaks of diseases caused by food of the person sea foodstuff with the high content of mercury (Minamata's disease) and cadmium (itai-itaa) are described. Tests of atomic weapons lead to pollution of the ocean radionuclides therefore in a number of the countries supervision of contents in foodstuff of the sea 90Sr and 137Cs is exercised. At some persons allergic reactions to proteins of marine organisms, napr, on parvalbumi-na of a cod are observed. Besides, disturbance of technology of conservation of fish and other marine animals can lead to accumulation in them of a histamine therefore a number of people has psevdoallergiche-sky reactions. Fungal and viral diseases of fishes and sea invertebrates are not dangerous to the person, as well as a tumor of these animals, however increase of number of the organisms affected with tumors can indicate increase in level of pollution of the sea.

Reduction of stocks of traditional objects of sea trade causes the necessity to investigate possibilities of use in food of the person of deep-water fishes. From them (a ruvetta, a lunnik, bolshegol) in animal experiments it were Nek-rye toxic. Attempts to use in food of the person of erinaceouses of animals, in particular calves of sea hedgehogs are made.

The lyophilized and sublimated foodstuff

the Lyophilized Pct — the products preserved by drying in a high vacuum (10_3 — 10 ~ 4 mm of mercury.). The method of drying in a high vacuum of the frozen products — sublimation is most effective (see. Lyophilizing ). At the same time the moisture which is contained in a product freezes and passes from strong aggregate state into vaporous, passing a liquid phase. Process proceeds in three stages: freezing of an initial product; sublimation; removal of residual moisture evaporation.

Found for lyophilizing broad application in the food industry. The method is applicable for drying of products of an animal and plant origin. Removal of moisture stops life activity of microorganisms that creates favorable conditions for long-term storage of Pct. The sublimations of Pct preserved by method at its correct organization generally keep the volume, chemical structure, organoleptic qualities, food and biol, value. At addition of water (ovodneniya) the dried-up products recover initial physical. - chemical properties. Sublimated products of an animal and plant origin are more and more widely used in food of the population of the developed countries. Nek-rye from them (e.g., fruit and fruit juice, soft drinks, confectionery) can use directly after an ovodneniye. Vegetable, meat and fish concentrates of the first and second courses use after preparation. Sublimated products find application in to lay down. food and for preparation of dietary dishes. They are used for food of crews of spaceships, participants of expeditions, winterings, by the population of a number of districts of the planet, etc.

Providing space expeditions with caches, generally consisting of sublimated products, is reasonable on condition of regeneration of water onboard the spaceship. In this case considerable economy in the initial weight of the products reserved onboard is reached.

For receiving qualitative sublimated products strict observance of technological norms of their preparation matters. In this case the method of sublimation gives to minimum physical. - to chemical changes and more keeps nutrition value of products in comparison with other methods of dehydration. Conditions of drying of separate types of products are various. For the majority of foodstuff speed and depth of freezing have no essential value, and such products as milk and fruit juice, it is necessary to freeze quickly and deeply. During the drying by method of sublimation in products the amino-acid composition, structure of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, initial amount of the majority of vitamins remain, contents ascorbic to - you slightly decreases. Dehydration of products gives the chance to keep them for a long time, and shelf-lifes depend on conditions in which there is a product. So, sublimated boiled meat in a glass container in the conditions of vacuum, but at a usual temperature, keeps the properties within 2 — 3 years. At low temperatures the shelf life of sublimated products increases.

Nutrition value of sublimated products is studied in experiments on animals and with participation of people. In these experiments high comprehensibility of proteins, fats, carbohydrates of these products, preservation of positive nitrogen balance, phosphorus, calcium is established; lack of any disorders of functions of various bodies and systems of an organism of animals and the person at their use.

Packaging of foodstuff

Packaging of foodstuff provides protection them from damages, gives the chance to eliminate losses, facilitates transportation, storage and implementation. Packaging provides the prevention possible direct, influences of a container on Pct and an indirect adverse effect on health of the consumer.

Packing material can be wooden, cardboard and paper, textile, glass, metal and from polymeric materials.

Wooden products are widely used for packaging of Pct for a long time. Small heat conductivity, lack of the phenomena of corrosion, harmlessness as the tree does not contain any noxious to health substances able to pass into Pct, or the substances spoiling organoleptic properties of products, ease of processing and availability justify use of this material. However the tree porous, absorbs liquid feedstuffs, to-rye then can be exposed to bacterial pollution. This defect is eliminated by impregnation or a covering of wooden products by varnishes, pitches, enamels, and also use of inserts from polyethylene. Pack margarine, cooking fats, egg powder, the dry and condensed dairy products, salty vegetables, fish etc. into wooden boxes.

From the waxed cardboard and wax paper produce glasses for ice cream, milk, sour cream, paper saucers. These objects are intended for disposable.

Brown paper can be the general and special purpose. Brown paper of general purpose serves for production of packages and packaging of various loose foodstuff. Parchment, under - the parchment and glassine possessing a giro - both water tightness and small air permeability, are brown paper of a special purpose. They are used for packaging of the zhirsoderzhashchy products and products rich with volatile substances (tea, coffee, cocoa, etc.). For improvement of separate properties of paper it is waxed or covered with polymeric materials. The paper covered from the inside with polyethylene, and from external — a blanket of paraffin, serves as material for packages, in to-rye spill milk, kefir and other liquid products.

Textiles — linen, semi-linen, lnodzhutokenafny, lnokenafny bags — are used for packaging of flour, grain, sugar, starch, etc. They protect a product from pollution, provide access of air, but do not protect it from moistening, defeat by insects, mites, etc.

Pack canned food and liquid dairy products, alcoholic and soft drinks, vegetable oils etc. into glasswares. She protects products from pollution, is steady against influence of components of products, but has considerable weight and easily fights during the transportations.

Metal packaging means — a container from aluminum, stainless steel, steel tinned (covered with tin) flasks for milk, welded steel and sunset barrels for vegetable oils, banks from tin plate and the varnished iron for canned food, a tuba from aluminum for liquid and semi-fluid products (sauces, cheeses, etc.). Valuable packing material is aluminum foil. Pack processed and soft cheeses, margarine, butter, ice cream, chocolate and other confectionery into it, fat-rich. Besides, the foil is applied to packing of milk bottles.

For packaging of Pct polymeric materials are widely used. The greatest distribution as packing materials found polyolefins, polystyrenes, polyvinylchloride, etc. Polyethylene and polypropylene of which do rigid capacity products and films belong to polyolefins. The film from polyethylene vlago-and a paronepronitsayema, but is a little steady against effect of fats and is gas-permeable. It is applied to packaging of liquid and hygroscopic products, put in a wooden and cardboard container etc. Pack processed cheeses, sour cream into polystyrene, etc. From polyvinylchloride and copolymers of a vinyliden chloride with vinyl chloride produce rigid products (glasses, banks for canned, vegetable, fish meat). The vinyl soft elastic film has property to contract during the cooling after short-term heating to 100 ° therefore it is widely used for vacuum packaging of meat, a bird, a covering of crustless firm cheeses, packaging of oil and other zhirsoderzhashchy products. Pack fragrant products into cellophane (spices, etc.), sugar, pasta, flour, grain, and also sausage, cottage cheese, fish intended for short-term storage. Gigabyte. requirements to the packing materials contacting to foodstuff: they shall not influence organoleptic properties of foodstuff, impact them a foreign smell, relish or color, and also strangers, especially noxious to health substances; shall not have the roughnesses complicating cleaning and a sink.

All materials intended for contact with foodstuff pass preliminary a gigabyte. assessment with attraction sanitary and chemical, and in case of need and toxicological researches are also included in «The list of the materials allowed M3 of the USSR for use in contact with foodstuff and Wednesdays».

Marking of packing material is carried out according to GOST or other specifications and technical documentation on a certain foodstuff.

Influence on foodstuff of chemicalixation of agriculture

the Chemical substances which are widely applied at different production phases of Pct can be present at an end product in not changed or sharply transformed look. Depending on at what stage of chemical substance get to Pct, they can be divided into three groups. Chemical substances of the first group pass all links of a food chain as are brought in the soil, pass into plants, further — into an organism of animals and, at last, with food stuffs of animal origin come to a human body (see. Food chains ). Nitrogenous, phosphoric, potash mineral fertilizers enter into this group; components of anti-erosion-nykh of means for the soil, such as phenols; in residual quantities the heavy metals, nitrates, sulfates, organic compounds which are available in the drain waters used as fertilizer; the toxic metals (e.g., cadmium) which are a part of mineral fertilizers. Chemical substances of the second group pass initial in a vein (soil) and come to forages as a result of processing of plants growth-promoting factors, napr, chlorsincaline-chloride, toxic chemicals; with sterns in an organism of page - x. animals the chemical preservatives used for preservation of forages and the residual amounts of petroleum hydrocarbons applied to cultivation of proteinaceous fodder components arrive. The third group includes the chemical substances used directly at cultivation of animals and birds and entered by it orally or parenterally. It is possible to carry hormonal and other growth-promoting factors of animals, medicines to them.

Entering into the soil of excessive quantity of mineral fertilizers negatively influences Pct since, first, the content of feedstuffs changes in the adverse party and, secondly, in products the connections making toxic impact on a human body collect.

Use of the raised doses of nitrogenous and potash fertilizers leads to decrease in content of starch in grain of wheat and tubers of potatoes, sugar in tubers of beet, copper and manganese in tubers of potatoes, to deterioration in food qualities of grain of barley and corn. Besides, in forages of animals the content of magnesium in this connection at the cattle various diseases develop that has an adverse effect on products of milk and production of meat decreases. At increase in phosphorus in the soil protein content and glutens in grain of wheat decreases. Excess of manganese in fertilizers is the reason of reduction of quantity ascorbic to - you in some vegetables.

From the undesirable connections accumulated in products of plant origin at use of the increased amount of nitrogenous fertilizers, considerable danger is constituted nitrates (see) because of a possibility of their transformation in nitrites (see) under the influence of bacterial activity, especially at the wrong storage and processing of vegetables. At pollution of vegetable juice bacteria concentration of nitrites increases more than by 100 times.

Use of antibiotics during the fattening of meat animals and birds leads to change biol, values of meat in connection with undesirable accumulation in it of fat, in some cases — to change of organoleptic properties of products, to disturbance of technological processes by production of foodstuff of the milk and meat proceeding in the conditions of fermentation with participation of specific bacteria. At consumption of the food stuffs containing residual quantity of antibiotics or their derivatives development of allergic reaction is possible. Besides, the antibiotics which are contained in Pct, changing properties of some pathogenic microorganisms, complicate timely diagnosis of dangerous diseases (a malignant anthrax, a salmonellosis). Use of medical antibiotics at cultivation of the meat cattle leads to increase in a share of resistant forms of microorganisms in the environment. In this regard medical antibiotics join in an arsenal of fodder antibiotics more and more seldom.

Growth-promoting factors of page - x. animals of hormonal action, especially synthetic nonsteroid connections like diethylstulbestrole, do not collapse in an organism of animals, and their residual quantity is long remains in meat products. At its use for fattening of animals in meat moisture content and fat increases. In our country and the majority of the countries of the world diethylstulbestrole is not applied in practice of livestock production because of its cancerogenic properties.

Medicinal substances, in addition to antibiotics and hormones, applied to treatment of mastitis, went. - kish., skin and other diseases of animals, pass into milk, change its technological and organoleptic indicators, can collect in edible bodies and fabrics for the person. Therefore the food stuffs received during treatment of animals in retail chain stores are not implemented. Milk goes on a forage of young growth of page - x. animals, meat it is fed to fur-bearing animals.

For the prevention of an adverse effect of the chemical substances used in agriculture assessment of their action on an organism in animal experiments with establishment of an admissible daily dose is carried out; bodies of health care exercise close systematic check behind the content of residual amount of chemical substances in Pct at various stages of their processing (see. Pesticides, pesticides and foodstuff ).

Tables

Table 1. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, CONTENT of VITAMINS AND ENERGY VALUE of the MAIN FOODSTUFF (content of substances on 100 g of an edible part of a product), by data A. A. Pokrovsky, 1976

Designations: 0 — lack of ingredient; — lack of data; content of Retinolum is specified in brackets.




Table 2. CONDITIONS AND SHELF-LIFES of FOODSTUFF




Bibliography: Bogomolova 3. N and Shtenberg A. I. About the content of organo-mercuric compounds (methyl - and ethyl derivatives) in some species of fish and products of the sea, Vopr, pitas., No. 3, page 50, 1976; V. P's Bull-calves. Food of crews of space objects, in book: Probl, tousle, biol., under the editorship of V. N. Chernigovsky, t.42, page 214, M., 1980; Hygiene of food, under the editorship of. K. S. Petrovsky, t. 1 — 2, M., 1971; Hygiene of products from fish, mollusks and Crustacea, It is gray. tekhn. dokl. WHO No. 550, lane with English, M., 1975; Zhuravleva M. N. and T r about I A. V. Tovarovedeniye's N of food products, page 107, M., 1975; Karandayeva V. P. Comparative nutritional value of the meat dehydrated by method thermal atmospheric, drying and method of sublimation, Vopr, pitas., LGV 6, page 12, 1963; Kizevetter I. V. Biochemistry of raw materials of a water origin, M., 1973; Maystruk P. N. and d river. Perspectives of use of new products of the sea in a balanced diet, Vestn. USSR Academy of Medical Sciences, No. 3, page 9, 1978; M yu G.'s l-ler, Litts P. and M yu N x G. D. Mikrobiologiya of foodstuff of a plant origin, the lane with it., M., 1977, bibliogr.; Not sterol M. F. Some problems of hygiene of food, Vestn. USSR Academy of Medical Sciences, No. 3, page 3, 1978; H e-eterin M. F. and To about N y sh e in V. A. Kadmy in food (prevalence, toxicology, sanitary and hygienic supervision), Vopr, pitas., No. 2, page 3, 1979; Not sterol M. F., B about about r about d and c to and I am V.P. English, page 71, M., 1976; With and to about r with to and y 3. Technology of products of a sea origin, the lane with polsk., M., 1974; Reference book of the commodity researcher of food products, t. 1 — 2, M., 1968 — 1969; Tkachenko E. S. The nutritional and biological value of the foodstuff preserved by method of sublimation, M., 1966; Packaging of foodstuff, the lane with it., M., 1970; Chemical composition of foodstuff, under the editorship of M. F. Nesterin and I. M. Skurikhin, M., 1979; Chemical and Narodetskaya R. V. Antibiotics in foodstuff, there she, No. 5, page 3, 1974, bibliogr.; Petrovsky K. S. Gigiyena of food, M., 1975; Pokrovsky A. A., etc. Medicobiological researches in range of application of estrogen as growth-promoting factors, Vestn. USSR Academy of Medical Sciences, No. 2, page 3, 1972; Full value of the irradiated foodstuff, It is gray. tekhn. dokl. WHO No. 604, lane with English, M., 1978, bibliogr.; The resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and Council of ministers of the USSR from 22. 9. 77 «About measures for further improvement of national health care», in book: The CPSU in resolutions and decisions of congresses, conferences and plenums of the Central Committee, t. 12, page 546, M., 1978; Radzhagopalan S. The guide to the main sanitary measures of fight against intestinal infections, the lane about structure of foodstuff, under the editorship of A. A. Pokrovsky, M., 1976; Schleger B., Schonherr K. u. S with h a d 1 i with h W. Untersuchungen zur Dynamik des Nitrat-und Nitritgehaltes bei der Verarbeitung von Mohren z u Mohrensaft, Ernahrungsforschun-gen, Bd 26, S. 52, 1981; Zitko V. The accumulation of polybrominated biphenils in fish, Bull, environ. Contam. Toxicol., v. 17, p. 285, 1977.


M. Ya. Brents, M. M. Levachev; V. A. Konyshev (foodstuff of the sea), M. F. Nesterin (influence on the foodstuff of chemicalixation of agriculture), A.S. Ushakov (lyophilized and sublimated foodstuff), A. P. Shitskova, R. S. Hamidulin (packaging of foodstuff); authors of the table 2 M. S. Kastornykh, T. G. Rodina.

Яндекс.Метрика