FOOD

From Big Medical Encyclopedia

FOOD — complex process of receipt, digestion, absorption and assimilation in an organism of the feedstuffs necessary for a covering of its power expenditure, creation and resuming of cells and tissues of a body and regulation of functions of an organism.

Chemicals of food, to-rye assimilate in the course of a metabolism, received the name of feedstuffs.

In the course of P. feedstuffs come to digestive organs, are exposed to various changes under the influence of digestive enzymes (see. Digestion ), get to the circulating liquids of an organism and thus turn into factors of internal environment of an organism (see. Metabolism and energy ). The person was allocated from fauna and therefore consideration of its food cannot be limited to a framework of purely biological definition of P. which is stated above. By P.'s consideration the person we meet questions of the social, economic and hygienic plan.

History

In the second half of 20 century apprx. 50% of world's population, hl. obr. in developing countries, tests belkovoenergetichesky insufficiency. So, in the 70th energy value of the food consumed by the person averaged in the developed countries 3060 kcal, and in developing — 2150 kcal, intake of protein in an organism — respectively 90 and 58 g, and animal protein — 44 and 19 g. Proteinaceous crisis affects, first of all, on health of children. Proteinaceous and power insufficiency of food at children's age reflects adversely on physical and intellectual development that, in turn, can exert negative impact on the follow-up social activity of these persons.

In P.'s analysis as social problem K. Marx, F. Engels and V. I. Lenin's fight was of great importance against maltuzianstvo (see), the population explaining shortage of food stuffs with excess growth.

V. I. Lenin showed that the lack of food of imperial Russia was caused not by the overgrowth of the population, but contradictions capitalist about-va.

In production of food stuffs geographical and climatic factors have the known value.

However into the forefront in providing the population with foodstuff social factors act. Radical reorganization of a way of life and food of peoples of the North in our country after Great October socialist revolution can be an example. The Brazilian scientist Zh. de Castro showed in the book «Geography of Hunger» that the lack of food of developing countries and starvation of a part of the population of the USA are caused by oppression of the capital, but not geographical and climatic factors. According to the expert opinion of the UN, resources of the globe at their correct use would allow to provide P. much more the population, than is available on our planet now. Believe that world production of food stuffs made in 60 — the 70th there are 20 century only apprx. 15% of possible. In the modern world huge amounts of money are spent for military needs. The measures for restriction of a race of arms and the subsequent disarmament proposed by our country would allow to switch these funds for advantage to mankind, including to the organization of a balanced diet of the people inhabiting our planet.

Specialized institutions of the UN — WHO, FAO, UNICEF — offered within national development of the countries implementation of the long-term program of fight against insufficient P.'s diseases and, first of all, with deficit of protein. These programs include decrease in losses of nutrition value of products at their technological processing and transportation, use of proteins from the plants low-utilized in P. of the person, napr, from leaves of a lucerne, use as a source of protein of seeds of oily plants (extraction of protein from cake and meal), implementation in agriculture of highly productive plant varieties and use for their cultivation of effective fertilizers (so-called green revolution), use for food of page - x. animals and person proteins one-celled (see), enrichment by missing amino acids of the foodstuff having adverse amino-acid structure, fuller use of resources of the World Ocean and other actions. Failures in implementation of «green revolution» showed that implementation of this program in developing countries is possible only on condition of radical restructuring of their social structure, transition to a way of socialist development.

In the developed countries where a certain part of the population leads a slow-moving life, systematically has a stress and eats the refined food poor in ballast substances and fat-rich, the social problem of fight against obesity, atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, an idiopathic hypertensia, diabetes arose digestible carbohydrates and salt.

The socialist planned system has considerable advantages before capitalism in fight with alimentary diseases (see). She allowed to predict within SEV the main directions of researches on production and distribution of foodstuff in relation to features of regions and needs of the person. In our country radical events for complete elimination of the mass diseases caused by nutritional deficiency, napr, a pellagra (see) and the food poisonings which had a wide spread occurance in imperial Russia are held (e.g., poisoning with so-called drunk bread). The organization of fight against alimentary diseases, their prevention are based on basic researches on justification of standards of need of the person for feedstuffs taking into account age, sex, the nature of the performed work, climatic conditions. In 1919 I. Lenin set the task to develop norms of food of the person, having noted inadmissibility of the data them only to energy value. He specified: «By norm to consider how many it is necessary to the person, on science, bread, meat, milk, eggs and t. under., i.e. norm not number of calories, but quantity and quality of food» (V. I. Lenin, Half-N of SOBR. soch., t. 40, page 342). Development in our country of evidence-based norms of P. allowed to plan rationally production of food stuffs, created conditions for evidence-based catering services of the population. An important link in planning of production of food stuffs and in the organization of a balanced diet of the population was creation of domestic tables of chemical composition foodstuff (see). These tables are widely used at P.'s planning the population in scales of the country and certain regions, at the organization of public catering.

For the radical solution of a food problem in our country the XXVI congress of the CPSU recognized necessary to develop the special food programme. The purpose of this program — in perhaps more short time to solve a problem of uninterrupted supply of the population with products, to provide significant increase in page - x. products on the basis of complex development of agriculture. Development of evidence-based norms of P. is a basis of the rational organization public catering (see). Along with further development of public catering the XXVI congress of the CPSU recognized necessary as high rates to develop in the eleventh five-years period production of products, ready for application, semi-finished products. A lot of work is carried out and is carried out in our country on the organization P. of children and teenagers. P.'s norms of children of various age are for this purpose developed, domestic goods for baby food are created, menus layouts are developed for child care facilities, work on rational P.'s organization of school students is carried out (see below Food of children). At the XXVI congress of the CPSU the decision to provide the advancing development of release of products of children's and dietary P., to increase production of the foodstuff enriched with proteins, vitamins and other useful components is made.

Among sots. - a gigabyte. and dignity. - a gigabyte. the actions directed to P.'s rationalization the population and prevention of alimentary diseases, the foreground belongs sanitary food to supervision. Industrial revolution, all extending use of chemicals in agriculture caused danger of environmental pollution, and through it and foodstuff. The socialist planned system of economy has huge advantages before capitalism in business environmental controls (see) and prevention of pollution of foodstuff. A lot of work is carried out in our country on prevention of introduction to foodstuff of the chemical additives making an adverse effect on health of the person (see. Nutritional supplements ).

In system of social actions for the G1 organization. the population the important place is taken by promotion of bases of rational P., fight against incorrect views, addictions and religioznsh prejudices.

In development human about-va there were essential changes in the Item. Apelike ancestors of the person ate preferential vegetable food, primitive people, napr, Neanderthal men, were engaged mainly in hunting and somewhat collecting of vegetable food. With the advent of agriculture vegetable food began to occupy a considerable share in a food allowance of the person again. Having learned heat treatment of food, the person made it more assimilable and could use as food raw materials of a plant, to-rye did not serve as food to his apelike ancestors. Exerted a certain impact on character of food of the person and in many countries the religion renders. The Christianity and Islam order observance of long posts which excessive duration did harm. In imperial Russia during a post cases of developing of avitaminosis And (xerophthalmia) were noted.

The analysis and synthesis of the saved-up scientific data on the correct P. were carried out still by antique scientists, e.g. K. Galen. In Europe the science about P. (nutritsiologiya) practically did not develop in the Middle Ages. Generalization and further development of knowledge in the field of science of food were Ibn-Sina's works. Blossoming of sciences in Renaissance led both to accumulation of the new facts, and to fundamental generalizations, to-rye sciences about G1 formed the basis. The famous scientist and the philosopher F. Bacon (1561 — 1626) proved a role of food in longevity, was interested in medical use of food.

In the further development the science about food relied on achievements of biochemistry and physics. Ogrokhmny influence on development of scientific ideas of food played opening of the first law of thermodynamics and applicability of this law to animals. It was established that combustion of substances of food and their biological oxidation give identical amount of heat, it allowed to put forward the thesis about equivalence biol, oxidation and burning. J. R. Mayer formulated bases of the concept food chains (see), having shown that the energy consumed by the organisms inhabiting Earth represents the transformed solar energy.

19 century this period was marked by rapid development of physiology and P. V biochemistry researches of processes of digestion, advance of food on a digestive tract, absorptions of feedstuffs and their subsequent assimilation, and also chemical structure of foodstuff were conducted. Yu. Libikh (1847) and L. Pasteur (1857) formulated ideas of a role of various mineral substances in food.

The base of modern ideas of physiology of digestion are I. P. Pavlov's works. Thanks to the researches begun in 19 century and continuing in the first half of 20 century the major irreplaceable factors of P. were open, namely: vitamins (N. I. Lunin, K. Funk, etc.), irreplaceable fat to - you, irreplaceable amino acids and mineral substances [Mendel (L. Century of Mendel), Mack-E. V. McCollum, etc.]. These researches laid a strong basis of modern ideas of needs of the person for feedstuffs.

In development of norms of P. the big merit belongs to M. N. Shaternikov, O. P. Molchanova, M. Rubner, U. Etuoter.

After Great October socialist revolution the science about P. began to develop in the USSR especially violently. It was promoted to a large extent by that circumstance that V. I. Lenin paid huge attention to the solution of a food problem. It found reflection both in its works, and in a number of the decrees issued in the first years of the Soviet power. The embodiment of the idea of V. I. Lenin was creation in 1920 in our country research in-that physiology of food which director appointed M. N. Shaternikov. In 10 years on the basis of it in-that there was larger Ying t of food which director was B. of PI. 3 lordly. Ying t of food was the directing and coordinating center in development of science about P. in our country. In 60 — the 70th a number of the basic researches which formed a basis of development of the concept rational was conducted to Ying-those food of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences under the leadership of A. A. Pokrovsky and balanced food (see).

In the second half of 20 century interest in problems P. sharply amplifies. They are considered already not only on state, but also at the international level. Keen interest in these problems is defined by their social, economic and medical value, shortage on our planet of food resources in general and proteinaceous in particular.

As in the USSR, and abroad scientific work on problems P. is conducted in the following main directions: theoretical researches of digestion, absorption and assimilation of feedstuffs; research of new sources of P., especially food and fodder protein; development and specification of norms of consumption of feedstuffs and foodstuff various categories of the population; studying of chemical structure of foodstuff and culinary dishes; development of bases to lay down. The item, including probe and parenteral P.'s problems, P.'s bases of the healthy and sick child, including a problem of substitutes of women's milk, preventive P. and others a gigabyte. problems P.

Norma of food

Theoretical fundamentals of modern science about P. is the balanced P.'s concept formulated in our country by the academician of AMN A. A. Pokrovsky. According to this concept, ensuring normal life activity is possible on condition of supply of an organism with necessary amount of energy, protein, vitamins, mineral substances and water in the ratios, necessary for an organism.

The balanced P.'s concept during the definition of a proportion of separate substances in diets (daily sets of foodstuff) is based on modern ideas of a metabolism and energy. At the same time the main attention is paid to so-called irreplaceable components of food, to-rye are not synthesized by ferkhmentny systems of an organism and in this regard shall be entered into an organism in necessary quantities with a diet. Irreplaceable amino acids, irreplaceable (polyunsaturated) fat to - you, vitamins belong to such components of food. Along with performance of plastic function (formation of proteins) amino acids (see) are mother compounds for synthesis of a number of hormones and neurotransmitters (thyroxine, adrenaline, acetylcholine, etc.). Polyunsaturated fatty acids (see) are obligatory components of biomembranes and mother substances for synthesis of prostaglandins and other biologically active agents. Row vitamins (see) performs coenzymatical functions, participates in redoxreactions. Irreplaceable components of food are also many mineral substances (see) and water. The feedstuffs coming to an organism are acquired not completely, in this regard the concept of so-called coefficient of comprehensibility of feedstuff is entered. This coefficient expresses as a percentage the share of feedstuff which is soaked up in intestines. The big merit in determination of coefficients of comprehensibility of proteins, fats and carbohydrates belongs to U. Etuoter.

Energy value of a diet consists of the energy concluded in being its part proteins (see), fats (see) and carbohydrates (see). At the same time carbohydrates carry out preferential a role of suppliers of energy whereas fats and especially proteins are also necessary material for the plastic purposes. Use of proteins as power material is extremely unprofitable for an organism. On the one hand, proteins are much more scarce, than fats and carbohydrates, and on the other hand, at their disintegration the substances possessing toxic action are formed. Accept that 1 g of proteins, fats and carbohydrates of food taking into account comprehensibility gives to an organism respectively 4, 9 and 4 kcal of energy. The energy arriving with food is spent for maintenance so-called. standard metabolism (see), on providing the energy expenditure of an organism necessary for implementation of processes of biosynthesis of organic matters, for active transport of substances, on maintenance of physical activity, etc. A part of the energy concluded in food dissipates in the form of heat.

It is established that is even able rather absolute rest (lying in a relaxed pose) the person spends during a day of 1200 — 1600 kcal. It is so-called standard metabolism. Reception even of a small amount of food causes strengthening of standard metabolism, a cut received the name of specific dynamic effect of food. Energy expenditure (the general power consumption within a day) adult almost healthy person can fluctuate in considerable limits depending on a profession, a floor and climatic conditions. The daily need for energy or demands insignificant physical efforts from persons whose work is not connected with physical work, makes 2500 — 2800 kcal. During the performance of the work connected with considerable physical efforts there is a peobkhodimost in increase in energy value of food.

Results of the basic researches which opened a role in food and mechanisms of assimilation of proteins (including being their part of amino acids), lipids, carbohydrates, vitamins, mineral substances are the basis for evidence-based norms of food of the person. Average sizes of need of the adult for feedstuffs and energy are specified in table 1. In our country norms of food of the person in which are considered a sex, age, energy expenditure of an organism are developed. These norms pereskhmatrivatsya periodically taking into account the latest developments of science and according to the changes which happened in working conditions and life of the population including taking into account escalating mechanization of work in the industry, in agriculture, in life, development of city transport — i.e. taking into account the changes leading to decrease in energy expenditure of a human body.

The ratio of components in a formula of the balanced food changes depending on working conditions and a byg of the person. It is found out that for food of almost healthy person the ratio of proteins, fats and carbohydrates in a diet, close to 1 is optimum: 1: 4. During the strengthening of energy expenditure (increase in a share of physical work) and increase in this regard the general caloric content should increase contents in a diet of protein in a smaller measure, than fats and carbohydrates.

On the basis of evidence-based standards of need of a human body for feedstuffs, on the one hand, and data on the content of these substances in various foodstuff, on the other hand, optimum daily diets, and also optimum annual need of the adult for products of the Item are calculated. Mean the amount of foodstuff providing daily need of the person for feedstuffs and energy by a diet. There is also a concept «actual diet» - it is the amount of feedstuffs which is actually received by the person in a definite time (e.g., per days) with foodstuff. Studying of a diet allows to open deficit of nutrients in food of the population and to plan measures for its elimination.

Also the diet is important for maintenance of health of the person along with an optimum diet. It is the quantitative and qualitative characteristic of food including time of meal, its distribution within a day on energy value and structure, conditions of meal. It is proved what optimum is 3 — 6-times P. Rekomenduyutsya of 3 main meals a day — a breakfast, a lunch and a dinner. Besides, there can be the second breakfast, an afternoon snack and a glass of kefir before going to bed. Most of researchers recommend to eat the most part of daily food at breakfast and a lunch less than one third of the general kalorazh of a daily food allowance was the share of a dinner.

Uniform food usually does not provide a human body with all necessary feedstuffs and quickly becomes boring. The P. is more various than the person, the it is more than chances to receive all food components demanded to it. One more advantage of various P. is, according to a number of researchers, that the feedstuffs coming to a human body in various combinations promote physiological adaptation that increases fitness of the alimentary system.

At P.'s insufficiency there are various patol, states. Preferential in developing countries proteinaceous and caloric insufficiency is most eurysynusic (see. Kwasiorkor ), caused by shortage of key products of food. As a result of insufficiency of protein, especially in combination with the insufficient general caloric content of a food allowance, in a human body processes of updating and protein synthesis, first of all in bodies where physiological cell renewal most quickly proceeds are broken: marrow, spleen, pancreas, intestines etc. Decrease in energy value of a daily diet to 1000 kcal and below at contents in it and less resulted 25 g of protein in bystry physical and intellectual fatigue, sharp deterioration in health, development of dystrophic changes in an organism and the subsequent death (see. Nutritional dystrophy , Starvation ). These phenomena were studied on the big contingents of persons during World War I and in Leningrad during its blockade in days of the Great Patriotic War.

Vulnerability to deficit of separate feedstuffs is shown the quicker, than less mature is the organism and than more intensively its growth. Observations over the young healthy people receiving the daily diet energy value of 1000 kcal including 25 g of protein revealed development of initial dystrophic changes in their organism during 2 — 3 weeks. It is established that children at acute shortage of protein in an organism for the first three years of life sharply lag behind in physical and intellectual development, and this process can be irreversible.

Researches of the 70th opened mechanisms of influence of proteinaceous and caloric insufficiency on the endocrine status of an organism. At the same time both lines of adaptive changes of endocrine regulation, and breakdown of systems of neuroendocrinal regulation came to light. At belkovokaloriyny insufficiency both in an experiment, and at the person operation of mechanisms of immunological protection is broken.

Proteinaceous and power insufficiency usually accompanies vitamin deficiency (see) though disclosure of essence of diseases of a vitamin deficiency, the industrial production of drugs of vitamins and broad actions for fight against these diseases reduced the frequency of their distribution.

Basic researches showed that animal protein shall make about 50% of crude protein of a diet. The analysis of the actual food of the population shows that this requirement is not fulfilled at a considerable part of the population, especially in developing countries. The diets based on phytalbumins have a number of shortcomings, to-rye can make an adverse effect on health of the person, especially on health and development of the children needing counting on a weight unit of a body bigger amount of irreplaceable substances of food than adults. Vegetable diets contain amino acids in less favorable ratio, than meat products, iron of vegetable diets is acquired much worse, than iron of food of animal origin, and, besides, vegetable food does not contain B12 vitamin as it is not synthesized by the higher plants. These factors combined adversely affect a human body, being the reason of emergence of alimentary anemias (see) and breaking development of a children's organism. Detection in the countries of the Middle East of cases of the hypogonadism caused by insufficient receipt in an organism of children of zinc or decrease in its comprehensibility under the influence of chemical components of vegetable food attracted interest in the phenomenon of insufficient security with zinc of the faces feeding on preferential vegetable food. Shortage of animal protein in diets of a considerable part of the population of our planet is caused by economic factors, however in some cases the failure from animal food is caused by incorrect ideas of allegedly existing advantage vegetarianism (see).

The small maintenance of vegetables and fruit in food of various groups of the population can lead to insufficient consumption not only water-soluble vitamins, but also some mineral substances (see) since the considerable share of these substances comes to a human body from vegetables and fruit.

Progressing of the diseases caused by disbolism, connected with the general overeating or overconsumption of separate groups of foodstuff is characteristic of the countries of high economic level. Among such disturbances obesity (see) owing to irrational P. is high on the list. Especially the explicit tendency of increase in cases of excess weight and obesity among children and youth guards. A number of researchers it is revealed that excess P. in the first months and years of life of the child (and even during the embryonal period at excess P. of pregnant women) promotes formation in a fatty tissue of the increased quantity of lipoblasts in this connection for many years predisposition to accumulation of a significant amount of fat in an organism of excessively fattened child (a so-called gipertsel-lyulyarny form of obesity, resistant to treatment) is created.

By numerous researches it is shown that excess consumption of food and especially the fats of animal origin containing preferential saturated fat to - you, increase risk factor of development of atherosclerotic process. Excess consumption of instant sugars, and first of all sucrose, is risk factor of emergence of a diabetes mellitus, and excess consumption of proteins — risk factor of emergence of a syndrome of a renal failure. Surplus nucleinic to - t in P.'s products can lead to development of gout and exchange arthritises, sodium chloride — to emergence of hypertensia, vitamin D — to strengthening of processes of calcification.

Along with chemical components, necessary for a human body, foodstuff may contain substances, harmful to his health, which intake brings into internal environments of an organism to acute or hron, to food poisonings (see).

Disclosure of fundamental bases of a balanced diet of the healthy person gave reliable approaches for development of evidence-based methods of clinical nutrition (see. clinical nutrition ). The item of patients with serious violations of processes of digestion can be carried out via the probe entered into a stomach or a duodenum — an enteroalimentation or intravenously — parenteral food (see). At probe P., as a rule, enter digestible liquid mixtures into an organism of the patient or partially or completely split foodstuff (hydrolyzates). The diet consisting only of amino acids, fat to - t, simple sugars, vitamins, mineral substances and water, nospt the name elementary. On the basis of an elementary diet mixes are developed for the parenteral Item. As showed K. V. Sudakov's researches, A. M. Ugoleva, etc., a digestive tract has significant effect on nervous and endocrine regulation of a metabolism, on digestion of the nutrients which came to an organism therefore per os is desirable to enter food into an organism of the sick person. Parenteral P. should be applied only at probe P.'s impossibility, and probe P. — only at impossibility of the usual Item.

The preventive orientation of the Soviet medicine found reflection and in catering services of the person. In our country bases of treatment-and-prophylactic food of working harmful productions are developed and the system of actions for the actual implementation of this type of food is implemented (see. Food treatment-and-prophylactic ).

Food of children

Food of children has a number of differences from P. of adults. In the period of the childhood, especially at children of early age, the need for feedstuffs and energy is rather higher, than at adults. It is explained by the dominance of assimilation over dissimilation connected with rough growth rates and development of the child.

Scientific justification of standards of needs of children of different age groups for feedstuffs and justification of sets of the products necessary for a covering of these requirements is carried out on the basis of patterns of development of a children's organism. Sizes fiziol, needs of children of various age groups for feedstuffs are established taking into account the functional and anatomo-morphological features inherent in each age group. E.g., digestive and metabolic systems of children of early age are most vulnerable, their ability to adaptive reactions is still poorly expressed; therefore the structure of food of children of early age shall correspond to activity of their fermental systems fullestly. Standards of need for feedstuffs of children of the predpu-bertatny and pubertal period consider the sexual distinctions arising during this period in dynamics of increase in the weight (mass) of a body, growth, an animal force that affects the need for feedstuffs and energy. Norms of food of teenagers consider also need of optimum receipt with food of irreplaceable amino acids and vitamins for maintenance of function of c. N of page and ensuring intense cerebration of pupils.

The recommended standards of need of children for feedstuffs

the Recommended standards of need of children for feedstuffs are developed so that whenever possible to avoid both insufficiency of food of children, and introduction to their organism of excess amount of feedstuffs as this surplus, according to some researchers, is one, but not the basic, a factor of emergence accelerations (see) — accelerations of physical and sexual development of children, a cut development of functions of a number of bodies and systems advances and reduces adaptive opportunities of an organism. According to L. I. Smirnova and M. P. Chernikov, development of acceleration is caused by excess consumption of protein at early age.

Rational at children's age it is necessary to consider P. corresponding to the needs of an organism for the main feedstuffs and energy. The deviation from these principles has an adverse effect on development of children. A row patol, states connect with the wrong P. children at early age. Disturbance of an odontosis, caries, risk of developing of diabetes, a gi-pertenzionny syndrome, renal pathology, allergic diseases, obesity concerns to them. Sizes of physiological need of children and teenagers for feedstuffs are presented in table 2.

Biol, the value of proteins is defined by amino-acid structure (see. Amino acids ) and ability of these proteins to hydrolysis under the influence of enzymes of a digestive tract. For children 9 amino acids are irreplaceable: tryptophane, a lysine, methionine, threonine, a histidine, phenylalanine, valine, a leucine, an isoleucine, and for children of the first months of life — also cysteine. 40% of need for amino acids shall become covered at the expense of irreplaceable amino acids. Special value for a children's organism has a ratio of tryptophane, a lysine and sulfur-containing amino acids (methionine - f-cysteine); in a growth period of the child an optimum ratio of tryptophane, a lysine and sulfur-containing amino acids is 1: 3: 3. Children need more, than adults, protein of an animal про-исхоя^дения (from 100% at chest age to 75 — 55% during the subsequent periods).

The need for food protein on 1 kg of body weight of the child gradually decreases with age from 3 — 3,5 g at early children's age to 1 — 2 g in teenage. Both insufficient, and excess consumption of protein in food of children adversely affects their growth and psychomotor development.

An important component of food at children's age are fats. In a quantitative sense the need for fat corresponds to the need for protein. Requirement in polyunsaturated fat to-takh (PNZhK) is determined by contents in a diet linoleic to - you: from 3 — 6% in the period of a neonatality and at chest age up to 2 — 3% of the general caloric content of a diet at preschool and school age. For ensuring need for PNZhK along with fats of animal origin it is necessary to use in daily food of the child the seed fats rich polyunsaturated fat to-tami.

Recommendations of amount of carbohydrates in a diet of the child are inseparably linked with researches of energy balance. It is considered to be that in a diet of children years most physiologically a ratio of proteins, fats, carbohydrates 1 are more senior: 1: 4. In a diet of children of school age the amount of carbohydrates at the strengthened muscular exercise can increase a little, and the ratio of proteins, fats, carbohydrates will make 1:1: 4,5.

Growth of children is followed by processes of intensive formation of a skeleton, muscular, hemopoietic and other systems of an organism. These processes shall be provided with necessary amount of mineral substances both their optimum ratio, and first of all salts of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron, potassium, sodium and a number of microelements, including salts of copper and zinc.

The significant effect on reactivity and metabolic processes of the growing organism renders security with vitamins. Tension of metabolic processes at children's age defines the increased requirement of an organism (at the rate on 1 kg of body weight) in the majority of vitamins.

Ying volume of food of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences approximate daily sets of foodstuff are developed for children aged from 1 year up to 17 years (tab. 3). In process of growth of the child the quantity of necessary products changes.

The total amount of milk decreases from 650 g at 2-year age to 550 — 500 g by 7 years and at school age. The amount of meat, fish, bread, grain, vegetables, cottage cheese gradually increases, approaching norm for adults.

It is very important to provide children with enough vegetables, fruit, I am year, the vitamins which are a source and mineral salts.

In process of an odontoplerosis, volume of the cosecreted saliva, increase in activity of enzymes went. - kish. a path the range of products and dishes extends, their culinary and technological processing becomes complicated. Aged from 1 up to 1,5 years from the wiped food it is possible to pass to small chopped, by 3 years — to food in the form of small pieces, and then — in the form of portion pieces.

For children 1,5 years are aged more senior culinary steam processing of food can be combined with easy subfrying. For children over 3 years subfrying of food is used more widely.

Regular observance of the correct regime P. of children promotes development of conditioned reflexes on timely department of digestive juices, to the best digestion of feedstuffs, frequency of evacuation of food. Aged from 1 year up to 1,5 years of children transfer from 5-times P. on 4-times, but the volume of food remains the same. For children aged from 1,5 up to 3 years the volume of a daily diet makes 1300 — 1400 ml, from 3 to 6 years — to 1800 ml, at school age — from 2000 to 2800 ml. The first breakfast makes 20 — 25% of daily caloric content, a lunch — 30 — 35%, an afternoon snack — 15% and a dinner — 20 — 25%.

Rational P. of children, since early age, is an important factor in health protection of younger generation.

Food at advanced and senile age

During the aging assimilyatorny processes in bodies and fabrics are weakened, the speed of redoxreactions is slowed down, there is a reorganization in system of neurohumoral regulation of a metabolism and functions (see. Old age, aging ). It causes need of the corresponding reorganization of P. of people for advanced and senile age in which the gerodiyetetika — the industry of medical knowledge which is engaged in scientific development and the organization P. of elderly and old people is designed to be engaged.

The item of people at advanced and senile age shall correspond to the age needs of an organism for the main feedstuffs, energy (it is necessary to consider also the power consumption connected with a type of activity) and to prevent development of a senilism. In a basis of the scientific organization P. of people of advanced age of A. A. Pokrovsky put the following principles: power balance of P. according to the actual energy expenditure; antiaterosk l heretical orientation of a diet; the maximum variety of P. and its balance on the major irreplaceable factors; optimum providing diets of P. with the substances stimulating activity of fermental systems; ispol->a zovaniye of the foodstuff and dishes which enough are easily treated to action of digestive enzymes. In this regard it is reasonable to reduce gradually on decades the caloric content of food. Caloric content of a daily diet of the person aged from 20 up to 30 years is taken for 100%. At the age of 31 — 40 years it is offered to reduce power consumption of food to 97%, in 41 — 50 years — to 94%, in 51 — 60 years — to 86%, in 61 — 70 years — to 79%, in 70 years and is more senior — to 69%. In our country at the age of 60 years is also more senior P.'s caloric content in the range from 2100 to 2650 kcal depending on a floor, conditions of life, in particular is recommended to degree of security of the population with utilities, the climatic zone of accommodation. First of all it is necessary to provide P.'s diets with enough protein.

In the USSR norms of protein make 1,2 and 1,0 g on 1 kg of body weight for elderly and old people respectively. Protein of food shall provide receipt in an organism of a wide range of amino acids from which at advanced age special significance is attached to a lysine and methionine. The last can be reached by use of various combinations of foodstuff that promotes increase in comprehensibility and biol, values of food. Apprx. 60% of daily need for proteins it is more preferable to satisfy at the expense of animal products, 30% from them — at the expense of milk and its products.

Daily consumption of fats by people of advanced age shall not exceed 0,8 — 1,0 g on 1 kg of body weight. At the same time 1/3 general its quantities shall make fats of a plant origin. It is necessary to provide diets with enough lipotropic substances.

The amount of carbohydrates in food is also recommended to be reduced. Contents them shall not exceed 300 — 320 g and make no more than 50 — 55% of the general daily caloric content. It is more reasonable to reduce amount of carbohydrates in P. due to reduction in diets of sugar, bakery, confectionery, jam and other sweets. In P. of elderly people consumption of the products containing cellulose, pectic substances is recommended to increase.

According to Yu. G. Grigorov, the ratio between the main feedstuffs in diets — proteins, fats and carbohydrates — shall make 1: 0,8: 3,5.

In the USSR standards of need for a number of vitamins are developed for persons aged from 60 up to 70 years. Consumption of sodium chloride should be limited to 8 — 10 g/days, including also amount of the salt (3 — 5 g) which is contained in natural foodstuff.

Balance on these main feedstuffs, and also the requirement of the maximum variety of P. of elderly and old people can be observed only on condition of daily inclusion in diets of various products. People of advanced age can use any products; the speech can go only about that what use from them is more preferable. A set of the main foodstuff providing balance of quantitative and qualitative ratios of feedstuffs, recommended for inclusion in daily diets of P. of elderly and old people is given in table 4.

In the given set of products the main specific weight is made by vegetables, fruit, meat (low-fat grades), milk, cottage cheese and other products containing irreplaceable factors of the Item. They are also among preferable products. The same products as having merged internally e oil, eggs, sugar, though shall not be excluded completely from P.'s range of elderly people, but the quantity them should be limited; it allows to pull together optimum actually consumed and recommended amount of feedstuffs.

The anti-atherosclerotic orientation of a diet is reached due to decrease in the general caloric content of P. and a quota of animal fats, increase in a share of vegetable oils, and also the systematic inclusion of the products having lipotropic properties, containing labile methyl groups (dairy products, vegetables, fruit).

Mode P., namely number of meals, intervals between them and caloric content (see) everyone reception shall be during the day strictly regulated. The most rational is four times food. The first breakfast — 25%, the second — 15%, a lunch — 35% and a dinner — 25% of the general daily caloric content. The last meal shall be not later, than in 2 hours prior to a dream. Inclusion in the mode P. fasting days (see) — kefiric, apple, vegetable, etc. — carry out only according to recommendations and under control of the doctor.

Obligatory use in P. of elderly people of some strictly certain products or dishes is inexpedient. Sharp and radical change of the developed food stereotype at elderly people can lead to an aggravation of symptoms of their health quite often. It is not recommended to exclude completely from a diet of elderly persons favourite dishes and to replace them with food, to-ruyu they did not love earlier and did not use.

Food of pregnant women

In the first half of pregnancy for the woman of average weight (55 — 60 kg) and the average height (155 — 165 cm) the daily diet shall make 2400 — 2700 kcal and contain 110 g of proteins, 75 g of fats, 350 g of carbohydrates. In the second half of pregnancy the general caloric content of a diet increases to 3200 kcal. It is necessary to aim that in diets was apprx. 65 g of proteins of animal origin, including 50% at the expense of meat and fish, 40% — at the expense of milk and its products, 10% at the expense of eggs. From fats preference is given to creamy and melted butter. To 40% of total quantity of fats shall make the fats of a plant origin containing important for an organism of mother and a fruit polyunsaturated fat to - you and tokoferola.

Vegetables, fruit, bread from coarse flour, grain — buckwheat and oat shall be a source of carbohydrates for pregnant women, especially in the second half of pregnancy. In 1 — 2 month prior to childbirth it is necessary to exclude from diets digestible carbohydrates, such as the sugar and confectionery promoting increase in weight of a fruit. Free liquid diets of pregnant women (including first courses, milk, compotes, tea, juice) shall contain no more than 1000 — 1200 ml in the first half of pregnancy and 800 ml — in the second half, and at tendency to hypostases — 600 ml.

The average daily need for vitamins of the healthy pregnant woman is increased and makes: in thiamin (Vkh) — 2,5 mg, Riboflavinum — 2,5 mg, a pyridoxine — 4,0 mg, cyanocobalamine — 3,0 mkg, folic to - they are 0,4 mg, ascorbic to - they are 150 mg, nicotinic to - they are 15 — 20 mg, Retinolum — 2,0 mg (6600 ME), a calciferol — 500 ME, tocopherol — 15 — 20 mg, the fillokhi-nena — 5 — 10 mg. The need for mineral substances at pregnancy is also increased and for the healthy pregnant woman averages: in calcium — 1,5 g, potassium — 3,0 — 3,5 g, phosphorus — 2,0 — 3,0 g, magnesium — 1,0 — 1,5 g, to gland — 15,0 mg; chloride sodium — 10 — 12 g in the first half of pregnancy, 6 — 8 g in the second half of pregnancy and in 1 month prior to sorts 4 — 5 g.

An indispensable condition of rational P. of the pregnant woman is observance of a certain mode P. In the first half of pregnancy 4-times food, in the second half — 5 — 6-times is recommended. The breakfast shall make up to 30% of caloric content of a daily diet, the second breakfast — 15%, a lunch — 40%, an afternoon snack — 5%, a dinner — 10%.

Food of women in a puerperal period

Food of the woman in childbirth shall be full and regular. In pishchevokhg a diet it is necessary to include surely kefir and cottage cheese (100 — 200 g), fresh fruit, berries, vegetables and other products, vitamin-rich.

It is impossible to use the acute and difficult digested dishes (fat meat, peas, etc.), canned food, alcoholic beverages. The daily amount of the consumed liquid shall not exceed 2 l (including and liquid dishes). See also Puerperal period .

Food of athletes

Food of athletes has a number of the features caused by high degree of the physical and psychological tension arising during the trainings and competitions and which is followed by activation of metabolic processes that causes the increased need of an organism for energy and separate feedstuffs. It shall not only compensate the spent amount of energy and feedstuffs, but also to promote increase in sports working capacity and acceleration of its recovery after intense exercise stresses. Caloric content of a daily diet of athletes is defined by their energy expenditure, to-rye depending on specifics of sport can fluctuate from 3000 kcal (for chess players, shashechnik) to 6500 kcal (for doing sports connected with long intense exercise stresses). P.'s diet shall include a wide range of products (meat, fish, eggs, milk and dairy products, animal and seed fats, grain, vegetables, fruit). During the training period during the performance of the sports exercises promoting increase in muscle bulk and development of force it is necessary to increase protein content to 16 — 18% on caloric content; at the long, intense exercise stresses directed to increase in endurance, food shall differ in the high content of carbohydrates (60 — 65% on caloric content). During competitions digestible products with optimum amount of protein and carbohydrates are necessary. It is not recommended to use products with the high content of fat and a large amount of cellulose. During the recovery period it is important to provide acceleration of anabolic processes and to promote completion in an organism of carbohydrate stocks, mineral substances and vitamins. Use of specialized products raised biol, the values containing digestible proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins macro - and microelements is reasonable (a proteinaceous sports product of SP-11, the proteinaceous Olympus cookies, carbohydrate and mineral Olympia drink, etc.). The feeding schedule at two trainings a day shall include 5 — 6 meals; napr, at 6-fold meal: a breakfast — 30% of the general caloric content of a diet; after the first training — 5%; a lunch — 30%; after the second training — 5%; a dinner — 25%; the second dinner — 5% (lactic products, rolls, etc.).

Food of staff of Armed Forces

the First data on diets for troops meet in military history of Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome. In the Russian army of norm of issue of provisions are introduced by Peter I for the first time. A. V. Suvorov and other prominent commanders showed big care of P. of soldiers. In Russia medical officers began to be involved in control of P. of troops at the end of 18 century, since 1828 supervision of cooking and quality of the delivered edibles and drinks was assigned to them.

Scientific development of questions P. of the Russian army is begun in 1905 by the special commission which part A. Ya. Danilevsky, S. V. Shidlovsky, G. V. Hlopin, etc. were. The commission defined requirements to army P.'s organization and offered «New food layouts for the lower ranks». Experience of wars convincingly showed that insufficient and defective P. leads to emergence in troops of avitaminosis: a scurvy, a night blindness, beriberi and a nutritional dystrophy, and also to decrease in body resistance to external influences.

Rational P. of troops promotes strengthening of health, physical development and fighting capacity of the military personnel, their resistance to various loadings and adverse factors of military work.

The organization P. in Armed Forces is defined by requirements of charters, special provisions, the managements, instructions and directives of the Ministry of Defence of the USSR. The commander of a part and his deputy for the back are responsible for the organization P. The food service directly provides timely and full-fledged P. of staff. The medical service exercises medical control of P.

Pishcha 3 — 4 times a day in military dining rooms are cooked (on galleys). The item of troops is carried out on the established norms. Norms of an allowance are established by the decision of Council of ministers of the USSR and become effective the order of the Minister of Defence of the USSR. They are implemented in the form of food rations (diets) representing set of a certain quantity of the products which are released to one serviceman a day. Rations are divided into the main, additional and special; they are differentiated taking into account features of military work and climatic conditions, include the various range of the products allowing to provide good nutrition and high tastes of food.

Treat the main rations soldier's, sailor's, flight, cadet, hospital, sanatorium, for crews of submarines, etc.

Additional rations are released over the main norm of an allowance. Special rations are intended for the staff serving in mountains, in the remote districts for crews of reactive and turbojet airplanes, etc.

Hospital P. in infirmaries, MSB, hospitals is carried out on norms of the main hospital ration according to the diets appointed by attending physicians. For TB patients, burn and beam diseases established special norms.

Food rations are established on the basis of studying of quantitative and qualitative adequacy of P. to exercise and psychological stresses. In the conditions of considerable hardware and wide use in military science of the automated means energy expenditure of many specialists decreased and averages apprx. 3500 kcal a day. In field conditions, especially on doctrines, during the landing, action in mountains, in deserts, in districts with a frigid climate energy expenditure can be considerable (St. 5000 kcal). Energy value of diets compensates the maximum energy expenditure of the military personnel. Diets of the military personnel completely provide the need for proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins and microelements. Security ascorbic to - that is reached by the maximum preservation it in the course of storage and culinary processing of products. In case of insufficient contents in a diet of fresh vegetables and other sources of redoxon preventive vitaminization of ready food by addition ascorbic to - you is carried out to the third dish daily on 50 mg on each person (see. Vitaminization of foodstuff ).

Food of the military personnel is carried out according to the layout of foodstuff which is formed food service together with medical service and the instructor-cook (the senior cook) and is approved by the commander of a part. In it are reflected the name of the dishes planned during each day of the week, a settlement exit (weight) of ready dishes, meat and fish portions. The layout allows to calculate nutrition value of the planned dishes and a daily diet (see. Menu layout ).

The mode P. (feeding schedule) is defined by character and conditions of educational and fighting activity of staff; frequency rate and time of meal, distribution of food within a day on a set of products and their energy value is provided in it. In land forces thrice P., by the ships, in aircraft is established and to lay down. institutions — four - five times. At the thrice mode P. intervals between meals shall not exceed 7 hours; for breakfast 30 — 35% of energy content of a daily diet, are given for a lunch — 40 — 45%, for dinner — 20 — 30%. During night watches (in guard) enter additional meal due to redistribution of products of the main ration. In hot climate the so-called displaced mode P is set: a breakfast in 5.30 — 6.00 (35% of energy content of a diet), a lunch in 11.00 — 11.30 (25%) and a dinner — 18.00 — 18.30 local time (40%). During night doctrines and occupations increase in energy value of a dinner is planned.

The daily diet of pilots of reactive and turbojet aircraft is characterized by a big variety of foodstuff and high energy value. Time of meal is determined depending on time of flights. Preflight P. will be organized for 1V2 — 2 hour prior to flights, the second breakfast or the second dinner is given to pilots between flights or after their termination for the purpose of compensation of energy expenditure. During the flights lasting St. 4 hours of P. of pilots it will be organized in the airplane with use of onboard rations. To each crew member is given onboard and wearable emergency stocks of food for P. during 3 days

of P. of staff of the underwater fleet during autonomous swimming it is characterized by a big variety of products of high nutrition value (cheese, eggs, caviar, balychny products, dairy products, meat, myasokopchenost, sausages, canned and fish meat, a vobla, fruit, vegetables). Provision cameras are counted on long-term storage of vegetables and perishable goods (including and the fast-frozen dishes) and products of sublimation drying. The daily diet of crews of submarines is distributed on 4 meals: a breakfast — 25%, a lunch — 33%, a dinner — 25%, evening tea — 17% of energy value of a ration.

In field conditions food rations of boiler use (field diets), and also onboard diets and dry rations for the individual Item are used. Soldiers and officers are provided with hot food from mobile kitchens on battalion food points. Officers of management and special units receive food on separate points P. or in field dining rooms of military trade. For cooking the products which are not demanding long culinary processing and special conditions for storage and implementation are generally used (food concentrates, canned food, quick-cooking grain, etc.). Time of delivery of hot food is planned depending on conditions of a situation and character of the carried-out tasks. If triple is impossible, double delivery of hot food with the obligatory organization of intermediate P. is established by the products which are not demanding thermal treatment. For P. in field conditions the food service has various technical means. Products are delivered to troops in special motor vans and refrigerators. Bread is baked on the field mechanized bakeries. Food is cooked in hook-on and automobile mobile kitchens, poleey kitchen-dining rooms.

The dry ration is handed out to each serviceman for individual P.; it consists of a set of the products which are not demanding culinary processing and providing thrice P. within a day (canned food, condensed milk, sugar, tea, ship's biscuits or crackers).

P.'s safety of staff in the conditions of use of means of mass defeat is ensured by system of the events held by food service: the shelter and creation of stocks of food in a protective container and packaging, observance of rules of preparation, distribution and meal in the infected territory, control of degree of infection of food and the equipment and the organization of examination. Preparation and meal are prohibited in the territory infected with toxic agents and bacterial means or at high levels of radiation.

Special P. will be organized for the military personnel acting in specific conditions (in mountains, districts of frigid or hot climate, etc.); it compensates power consumption, increases working capacity and resistance to adverse environmental factors. Set and quantity of products of special diets provide a variety and high biol, P.

Lech's value. - the prof. P. is appointed the serviceman working in the conditions of harmful factors of work for nonspecific prevention of their adverse effect, is given in addition to a usual daily diet.

Medical control of food of troops (fleet) is the most important obligation of medical service and represents the system of sanitary and food supervision including participation in development of rations and new food means for troops and forces of the fleet, precautionary supervision of design, construction and reconstruction of objects P., the current supervision for a dignity. a condition of objects of food service and health of workers of food, monitoring for P. of the military personnel (full value, the mode and P.'s quality), assessment and forecasting of the food status of the military personnel.

The chief of medical service of military unit (ship) participates in development of the mode P. and drawing up layouts of products for cooking, controls P.'s quality of staff and a dignity. the condition of food objects of a part, presents to the commander of the conclusion on the soldiers and sergeants needing dietary P. selects tests of food and foodstuff for definition in a dignity. - epid, institutions of their high quality, chemical structure and energy value, estimates the state of health of the military personnel connected with P. (the food status), takes part in a dignity. to examination of foodstuff and food. Dignity. examination of the food coming to troops is carried out by specialists a dignity. - epid, institutions with participation of army doctors. In field conditions only food of doubtful quality or suspicious on infection is subject to examination. Expertize is carried out by means of organic laying (laboratories) expected field methods of a research. Products are investigated on site, or their tests go to institutions medical and vt. services. The conclusion about the validity of food for P. of staff is drawn by the representative of medical service, the decision on its further use is made by the commander of a part.


Tables

Table 1. NEED of the ADULT FOR FEEDSTUFFS (average data, according to A. A. Pokrovsky, 1974)



Table 2. PHYSIOLOGICAL NEED FOR SOME FEEDSTUFFS AND ENERGY of CHILDREN AND TEENAGERS



Table 3. An APPROXIMATE DAILY SET of PRODUCTS FOR CHILDREN AGED FROM 1 YEAR UP TO 17 YEARS



Table 4. A DAILY SET of the KEY PRODUCTS RECOMMENDED FOR INCLUSION IN DAILY FOOD ALLOWANCES of PEOPLE of ADVANCED AGE





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B. A. Shaternikov; Yu. G. Grigorov (rep.), H. F. Koshelev, K. K. Silchenko (soldier.), V. A. Konyshev (sots.), K. A. Laricheva (sport.), E. P. Samborskaya (academician), E. M. Fateeva (ped.).

Яндекс.Метрика