FOHT Alexander Bogdanovich (1848 — 1930) is the Soviet pathologist, zasl. professor Moscow un-that (1898), zasl. scientist of RSFSR (1928).
Okonchil_ in medical f-t Moscow un-that in 1870, worked as the children's doctor at the same time in the New and Ekaterina's and city nursery-tsakh, and also the assistant to the prosector at department patol. anatomy and forensic medicine Moscow un-that under the leadership of I. F. Klein. In 1873 defended the doctoral dissertation «To the doctrine
about a webby dizmenorrea» and it was elected the associate professor patol. anatomy and forensic medicine Moscow un-that. In 1875 and 1880 was engaged in pilot studies in the field of cardiovascular pathology in Leipzig in-those the general pathology at THAT. Kongeyma. Since 1880 professor of department of the general pathology Moscow un-that. In 1891 Ying t of the general and experimental pathology Moscow un-that organized and headed. Since 1906 professor of department of the general pathology medical f-that the High female courses in Moscow (nowadays the 2nd MMI). It repeatedly protected the rights of revolutionary students. In 1911 in protest at reactionary activity of the imperial minister of education Kasso left from un-that together with big group of progressive professors. In 1912 Ying t of the general pathology would base and headed at the 2nd Town (nowadays department patol. physiology of the 2nd MMI). After overthrow of a tsarism in 1917 was returned in Moscow un-t. In the first years of the Soviet power (1918 — 1920) it was elected the dean medical f-that 1 MSU (nowadays the 1st MMI). In 1920 — 1923 gave a course of an organopathology at the Higher medical school in Moscow created on the basis of the Main clinical military hospital (see). At the same time headed department of the general pathology medical f-that
the 2nd MSU (nowadays the 2nd MMI).
A. B. Fokht was a founder of the direction in pathology, a cut was under construction on the complex studying of a disease including morphological, experimental and physiological and clinical methods. He investigated the adaptive and compensatory reactions of an organism caused by action of pathogenic factors (see. Compensatory processes, Adaptation), a role of nervous and humoral mechanisms of regulation of functions in the conditions of pathology. Under its management the first domestic experimental works but pathologies of hemadens were performed.
A. B. Fokht and his school laid the foundation of domestic experimental cardiology; original experimental methods of modeling of heart diseases are developed (defects of valves of heart, an embolism of coronary vessels, a hydrocardia, cardiac tamponade, etc.); basic researches of a pathogeny of a pericardium, cardiosclerosis, pathology of coronary circulation are conducted. Establishment by A. B. Fokht in
1901 dependences between prevalence of a necrosis of a myocardium was of great importance for clinic at an embolism of coronary arteries and extent of development of collateral circulation, and also a role of collateral circulation in the subsequent recovery of normal action of the heart. He one of the first paid attention to value of an impulsation from internals in development of disturbances of blood circulation. In 1902. A. B. Fokht and V. K. Lindemai investigated compensatory reaction of cardiovascular system (strengthening of work of a right ventricle of heart and vasodilatation of lungs) in response to an embolism of pulmonary arteries. They assumed also that changes of a hemodynamics of a big circle of blood circulation at an embolism of pulmonary arteries have the reflex nature.
And. B. Fokht is the founder of large kliniko-experimental school, to a cut
V. V. Voronin, V. F. Zelenin,
D. D. Pletnev, G. I. Ros Salima, G. P. Sakharov, I. K. Spizharny, A. I. Talyantsev, etc. belonged.
A. B. Fokht was elected the deputy of the Moscow Council, was companion (deputy) chairman Fiziko-meditsinsky about-va, one of founder members and the companion of the chairman Moscow medical about-va, the member of council Russian endocrinological about-va, the honorary member Moscow and All-Union therapeutic about - century
of Works: To the doctrine about a webby dizmenorrea, a yew., M., 1873; Works of Institute
of the general pathology of imperial Moscow university, century 1 — 4, M.,
1896 — 1902 (editions); Researches about an inflammation of a pericardiac bag, M., 1899; About functional and anatomic disturbances of heart during the closing of coronal arteries, M., 1901; About disturbances of blood circulation and action of the heart at an embolism of a pulmonary artery, M., 1903 (sovm. with Lindema-nom V. K.); Lectures of the general pathology,
p.1 — 2, M., 1910 — 1913; Pathology of heart, M., 1917, 1920.
Bibliography: In about y N about in V. A. About
A. B. Fokht's fessor and his role in development of department of a pathophysiology of the I MMI of I. M. Sechenov, in book: Aktualn. vopr. stalemate. fiziol., under the editorship of K. V. Kuzmin, etc., page 32, M., 1969; Pavle and -
to about S. M. and In about y N about in V. A. Alexander Bogdanovich Fokht (To the 125 anniversary since birth), the Stalemate. fiziol. and ekspery. ter., No. 5, page 91, 1973; III and l and N and with Yu. A. The main directions in work of department of pathological physiology of the I MMI of I. M. Sechenov in 100 years, in book: Aktualn. vopr. stalemate. fiziol., under the editorship of K. V. Kuzmin, etc., page 23, M., 1969.
S. M. Pavlenko, Yu. A. Shiliniye.