FLYuOROHROMY (Latin fluor a current, a flow + Greek chroma color, coloring) — the organic dyes capable to fluoresce at their lighting by ultraviolet, violet or blue rays. T.
absorb the exciting light falling on them and radiate a part of an absorbed energy in the form of visible light with wavelength bigger, than the wavelength of exciting light (see the Luminescence).
T. are applied: 1) during the use of the luminescing antibodies for identification of bacteria, viruses, rickettsiae, protozoa, fungi, yeast, fabric antigens and onkoantigen, etc. (see the Immunofluorescence); 2) at luminescent microscopy (see) for diagnosis of tuberculosis, helminthoses, a leprosy, for gistol. identifications of polysaccharides, ligshd, DNA, RNA, etc.; 3) at a mpkroflyuorimetriya (see Flyuorimet-riya) and fluorescent cytochemistry for quantitative cyto - and gistokhy. definitions of DNA, proteins, catecholamines, lipids, during the studying of immunochemical reactions and quantitative cytochemical definition of proteins by means of a tsitoflyuorimetriya;
4) in a flowing tsitoflyuorimetriya for a flyuorokhromirovaniye of cells at identification of DNA, RNA, etc.;
5) for identification of bonds between separate neurons, studying of geometry of their shoots and for other purposes; 6) as the tag entered into the growing bodies with use of vital stains: for the characteristic of a functional condition of cells, oprede-
the line of quantity an oyelka, for cyto-chemical definition of separate amino acids; 7) as ligands in an affine chromatography (see), including for qualitative and quantitative test of sugars and amino acids; 8) as fluorescent probes at a research biol. membranes (see Membranes biological). By means of F. study transport of substances (including ions) through membranes (see Transport of ions), and also the restructurings connected with functioning of membrane systems as in the isolated state, and directly in cells and fabrics; at the same time it is possible to resolve such issues, to-rye difficult or it is impossible to solve by other existing methods. By means of introduction F. in a molecule of substrate it was succeeded to define activity of many enzymes, especially hydrolytic.
One of the most popular F. is acridic orange, to-ry communicates proteins and nucleinic to-tami. For the first time it was applied in 1934 by Bukachem (F. Vee-katsch) and Haytinger (M. of Haitin-ger), and in 1940 S. Strug-ger, to-ry by means of acridic orange tried to distinguish live protoplasm from dead. In the 40th 20 century Koons (And. The N of Coons) laid the foundation for the new section of an immunohistochemistry, having suggested to use antibodies, marked an isocyanate of a flyuorestsein, as thin cytochemical indicators on the corresponding antigens (Koons's method). In 1958 J. Riggs applied isothiocyanate of a flyuorestsein (FITTs) — water-soluble F. with bright fluorescence of high intensity, to-ry still is the best among known for a tag for protein of antibodies. By Koons's method all F. attach to proteins by means of strong chemical communication, covalently. Such F. call active; to the dikhlortriazinilo-Vyya F., entering into group of active, call protsionovy dyes. On the mechanism of interaction with the painted substance almost all active F. it is possible to divide into two types: T., reacting with the painted substance by means of reaction of nucleophilic substitution, and T., reacting nucleophilic accession to the painted substance. Reactive functional groups F. preferential react with NH2 rpy a stamp and nek-ry — with SH-rpygitami of proteins. Fluorescent properties F. are defined by their chemical structure. The fluorescence caused F., specially entered in biol. an object, is called secondary unlike primary fluorescence, edge svya-
Zahn with a radiation of the fluorescent connections of a natural origin which are contained in vegetable and animal fabrics.
In practice of a medico-biol. researches it is used more than hundred various F. Naiboley usable F. are provided in the table.
Interest in use F. continuously increases in biology and medicine, there are new areas of their use in connection with creation of new methods, development and improvement of the equipment and synthesis new F.
The MOST USABLE of FLYUOROKHROMA, THEIR PROPERTIES AND USE
Bibliography: Vladimirov Yu. A. and
Dobretsov G. E. Fluorescent probes in a research of biological membranes, M., 1980; Zelenin A. V. Luminescent cytochemistry of nucleic acids, M., 1967; Ivanov V. B. Active dyes in biology, M., 1982;
An immunoluminescence in medicine, under the editorship of E. N. Levina, M., 1977; P and r with E. Gistokhimiya, the lane with English, page 127, 637, M., 1962; Frayshtat D. M. Reactants and drugs for microscopy, M., 1980;
Yude of N friend S. Fluorescence analysis in biology and medicine, the lane with English, M., 1965. K. L. Shakhanina.