FTORORGANYCHESKY CONNECTIONS — the connections containing in a molecule one or several bonds carbon-fluorine. T. pages in medicine are applied as antineoplastic means, napr, ftoruratsit (see), means for an inhalation anesthesia, napr, Ftorotanum (see), blood-substituting liquids (see), for different production of prostheses, including at prosthetics of valves of heart (see), and also a laboratory glassware. T. pages are applied as insecticides (see), pesticides (see), surfactants (see Detergents), to production propellentmv (see), lubricants, coolants (hladon), etc. Many F. pages are toxic and can represent professional harm.
Monofluorination (see) in a molecule of organic compound (see. Organic compounds) often sharply changes properties of the last, connection gains chemical inertness, degree a cut corresponds to number of atoms of the fluorine entered into its molecule. Sometimes monofluorination in molecules of the substances possessing biol. or pharmakol. activity. strengthens it.
Chemical name F. the page consists of the name of fluohydrocarbon with the per-prefix, e.g., completely fluorinated CF3(CF2)5CF3 heptane is called the perftorgep-thane. Partially fluorinated connections consider as derivatives completely fluorinated, e.g. CF3CFH(CF2)4CF2H call
Receive F. page substitution of hydrogen atom direct fluoration by elementary fluorine (at strong cooling) or substitution of halogen atom in organic compound (usually chlorine) effect of hydrogen fluoride,
KF potassium fluoride, etc.
In a human body and animals many F. pages are metabolized with formation of an ion of F" and a number of active connections; it explains their toxicity. The most toxic F. villages have anti-cholinesterases-nym action (see X about l and and e with t of an er z y), the nek-ry ftorofos-veils (e.g., parathion, paroksan) used as pesticides concern to them. Neuroparalytic toxic agents (see) are F. page.
Fluororganic connections as professional harm. From F. the pages which are the most widely studied in toksikol. aspect are ftoral-Cana (ftorproizvodny methane, ethane, propane, butane and other fluohydrocarbons), fluorine of a lke-na (ftorproizvodny ethylene, propylene, etc.), aliphatic and aromatic ftorproizvodny (the fluorinated alcohols, amines, dinitriles, ethers, ftorproizvodny benzene, toluene, etc.), ftorpolimer and products of their thermal-oxidative degradation, a ftoratsetata (monofluoroacetic to - that, etc.).
Toxicity F. page it is various: from
low-toxic ftorproizvodny methane and ethane (hladon) to extremely toxic — monofluoroacetic to - you, perfluoroisobutylene, etc. It is established that among ftorproizvodny methane and ethane toxicity decreases with reduction in a molecule of number of chlorine atoms and increase in number of atoms of fluorine.
Ftoralkena are more toxic in comparison with ftoralkana. Consider that in this case toxicity is in the return ratio with amount of atoms of fluorine and, obviously, the main role in biol. activities of these connections are played by presence of a double bond. Perfluoroisobutylene is especially toxic. Among ftorkarbonovy to - t toxicity depends on amount of carbon atoms in a molecule. The acids containing an even number of carbon atoms in an organism form highly toxic monofluoroacetic to - that.
Space similarity of radicals of CFH2 and SN3 leads to replacement acetic" to - you on fluoroacetic in a cycle tricarboxylic to - t (see Tricarboxylic acids a cycle) in this connection the «ftoratsetatny action» of this connection close to so-called lethal synthesis is shown. The acids containing an odd number of carbon atoms in an organism are oxidized to less toxic, than monofluoroacetic to - that, R-ftor-propionovoy to - you and its metabolites. The monofluorinated alcohols and ethers are oxidized in the corresponding acids, as defines their toxicity.
Hron. poisonings couples F. pages are characterized by irritation of mucous membranes of upper respiratory tracts and went. - kish. path. At hron. poisonings as a result of long contact with F. villages note functional frustration of c. N of page with neurotic or asthenic syndromes (see. An asthenic syndrome), and also changes of a gemogramma — a neutrophylic leukocytosis, anemia, etc. At long contact with F. page hron. intoxication can be complicated by the diffusion changes in a myocardium revealed on an ECG.
Treatment hron. intoxications F. page symptomatic with discharge from work with F. page before recovery.
Acute poisonings of a hladonama (freonama) are characterized by a severe headache, dizziness, nausea, sharp weakness. If the person gets to a cloud of vapors of freon, note a picture of acute air hunger: loss of consciousness, disturbance of cardiovascular activity. At reception of hladon deep burns of a gullet and stomach inside develop up to perforation of their walls.
Acute poisonings with perfluoroisobutylene and products of its oxidation are especially dangerous. In these cases clinical displays of acute intoxication are painful cough, the complicated breath, pain behind a breast, an asthma which develop after 6 — 8-hour stage of latency; in lungs wet rattles are listened, body temperature is increased. The expressed vascular disorders lead to development of a toxic fluid lungs (see), to changes of a gemogramma — to a neutrophylic leukocytosis, sometimes a monocytosis, acceleration of ROE, toxic nephropathy (in urine — protein, a large number of leukocytes, to 30 — 50 under review). Condition of the victim at uncomplicated acute poisoning F. the page would improve usually through - — 8 days, in hard cases against the background of increase of a fluid lungs and cardiovascular insufficiency there can come death. Danger of acute poisoning with perfluoroisobutylene and nek-ry others F. the page is aggravated with the fact that these connections have no smell, and range between deadly and transferable concentration is very small.
Inhalation of products of thermooxidation of perfluoroisobutylene, and also dust of a ftoroplast (polytetrafluoroethylene) can cause the polymeric (teflon) fever reminding foundry fever (see). The disease develops, as a rule, in 1 — 2 hour after inhalation of an aerosol of dust of a ftoroplast. At victims the fever, irritation of upper respiratory tracts with dry cough and feeling of constraint in a breast is observed. Objectively note the elevated temperature of a body (sometimes to 39 °), tachycardia, short wind, the strengthened sweating, in blood a leukocytosis, in urine availability of fluorine is possible. After elimination of contact with an aerosol of dust of a ftoroplast fever stops.
Acute poisoning trifluorochlorine-ethylene differs from acute poisoning of a hladonama and is characterized by sharp weakness, a headache, vomiting, pains in an anticardium. Objectively note a stiff neck, expansion of pupils, jaundice, an anury. These symptoms are result of vascular disorders and wet brain, a meninx and lungs, and also dystrophic changes in a liver, kidneys, a myocardium.
First aid and emergency treatment. The victim first of all shall be exempted from outerwear and is moved in warm, well provet-rivayekhmy room, whenever possible it should provide inhalation of the moistened oxygen. At irritation of upper respiratory tracts — rinsings of 2% solution of Natrii hydrocarbonas, soda inhalations, mustard plasters, at a laryngospasm — atropine subcutaneously, at painful cough — expectorants, codeine, dionine. For the prevention of a fluid lungs early intravenous administration of calcium chloride (10 ml of 10% of solution) and an Euphyllinum (10 ml of 2,4% of solution), intramusculary — 10 ml of 10% of solution of a gluconate of calcium is shown, at spasms — diazepam of 1 — 2 ml of 0,5% of solution, intravenously — 40% of solution of glucose with ascorbic to - that, at an elevated temperature — early prescription of antibiotics. Immediate hospitalization, transportation in a prone position, prevention of overcooling, etc. is necessary. During the transportation of victims the precautionary measures provided at poisonings with asphyxiating gases shall be taken (see. Suffocating toxic agents). In stationary conditions carry out symptomatic therapy. At reception F. the page (e.g., hladon) inside is necessary an urgent gastric lavage via the probe (see the Gastric lavage).
Treatment of burns of a gullet and stomach — see Poisonings, the tab., strong acids.
At hit F. the page in eyes them should be washed out a water jet with the subsequent instillation 1 — 2 thaw of 30% of solution of Sulfacylum-natrium (albucid), 1% of solution of novocaine or 0,5% of solution of Dicainum with adrenaline (1:1000).
Examination of working capacity. At lungs and moderately dressed up poisonings F. villages recommend temporary transfer for other work before the end of treatment. At a serious poisoning F. the page with permanent disturbances of health after the corresponding treatment is necessary discharge from work with F. page and rational employment.
Prevention of poisonings fluororganic and connections consists in development and use of wasteless technology, a continuity of a techno of l. process, a close check behind tightness of the equipment, distance steering, use of rational ventilation (see). Constant control behind purity of air of a working zone by means of automatic gas analyzers is necessary. All again synthesized F. pages shall be exposed toksikol. to assessment. It is necessary to apply hose industrial gas masks to protection of a respiratory organs (see Gas masks). Observance of the measures of personal hygiene, instructing working preliminary and periodic medical examinations is of great importance (see. Medical examination).
Fluororganic connections in the medicolegal relation — see Fluorine.
Bibliography: Occupational health in chemical industry, under the editorship of 3. A. Volkova, etc., page 304, M., 1967; Both with and to Ava N. and To about and I with and E. Ftor, Chemistry and use, the lane with yaponsk., M., 1982; Korbakova A. I., etc. Toxicology of fluororganic connections and occupational health in their production, M., 1975; Sheppard U. and Sharts To. Organic chemistry of fluorine, the lane with English, M., 1972. R. D. Gabovich (chemical), E. N. Marchenko, T. K. Nikitenko (gigabyte. tr).