The FLUOROGRAPHY (Latin of fluor a current, a flow + Greek grapho to write, represent; synonym: a rentgenofotogra-fiya, a photox-ray analysis) — the method of X-ray inspection consisting in photography of the full-measured shadow image from a x-ray X-ray fluoroscopic screen or from the screen of the electron-optical converter on a film of a small format.
Idea F. A. Batelli and A. Carbasso soon after opening in 1895 of x-ray emission was offered (see). In 1896 Bleyer (J. The m of Bleyer) designed the first fotoflyuo-roskop and showed the first flyuorogramma. In 1924. De Abre (M. of De Abreu), using more high technological level F., organized in Rio de Janeiro the first fluorographic center for tuberculosis detection of lungs. In the USSR K. V. Pomeltsov,
V. V. Dmokhovsky, N. F. Zarke-vich, Ya. L. Shik, S. A. Reynberg, I. N. Ivanov, P. V. Sokolov, I. L. Tager, L. M. Freydin, etc. were engaged in development of questions of fluorography.
Modern F. allows to increase the capacity of X-ray department (see), reduces costs of inspection and beam loading on investigated and the medical staff, facilitates storage of archives of roentgenograms thanks to their small format (generally 70 X X 70 mm). All this made F. by the most mass method rentgenol. inspections of the population. In a crust, time F. plays an essential role in the solution of the national social and hygienic objective — dispensary service of the population. Among diagnostic methods — radio isotope diagnosis (see), termografiya (see), ultrasonic diagnosis (see) — the fluorography is the main method of selection (see Screening) persons with suspicion of diseases (first of all bodies of a chest cavity), and also method of overseeing by groups of persons of high risk. T. allows to reveal it is hidden the proceeding tuberculosis of a respiratory organs (see), dust occupational diseases of lungs (see the Pneumoconiosis), nonspecific inflammatory processes, tumors of lungs and a mediastinum (see Lungs, the Mediastinum), damages of a pleura (see) and diaphragms (see), tumors of a mammary gland (see), tumors of a stomach (see) and a gullet (see), and also cardiovascular diseases, diseases of adnexal bosoms of a nose (see), a skeleton, etc.
At F. for obtaining images in a reduced scale (flyuorogramm) use special prefixes to X-ray apparatus — photofluorographs. The photofluorograph together with a protective cabin and ps-
Fig. Scheme of receiving flyuorogramma: 1 —
a source of x-ray emission; 2 — an object of raying; 3 — the x-ray screen with the eliminating lattice; 4 — optical system of the camera; 5 — a fluorographic film.
a tochnik of x-ray emission makes the rentgenoflyuorografiche-sky device. Domestic X-ray fluorographic devices 12 F4 and 12F7 allow to do pictures at a voltage up to 125 kV and anode current 100 — 150 ma. Endurance at F. lungs as the most widespread research, is established by the automatic exposure meter, and at F. other bodies — according to tables of exposures. In the device 12F7 the minimum value of tension of shooting is reduced to 35 kV; there is a prefix for carrying out fluorography of a mammary gland.
The design of these X-ray fluorographic devices gives the chance to personnel to work without additional protective screens and aprons at the existing normative loads of photofluorographs. Beam loading on investigated at F. does not exceed double value of a dose from natural background radiation (see background radiation), and during the shooting from the screen of the electron-optical converter — is lower than this dose. The photofluorograph consists of a X-ray camera and a support, on Krom it is fixed. The X-ray camera turns on the x-ray screen with the eliminating lattice before it, optical system, a fluorographic film (see X-ray photographic materials) and the device of dl I fixing and automatic rewind of an exposed film (fig). X-ray cameras have super and high-aperture lenses and X-ray fluoroscopic screens of the increased luminous efficiency. In domestic X-ray cameras F-59p and KF-70t the rolled nonperforated fluorographic film of the Russian Federation-3 70 mm wide (the size of a shot of a flyuorogramma 62 X 62 mm) is used. Big capacity of cartridges of the photofluorograph allows to do without their recharge to 420 flyuorogramm with a frequency of 2 — 4 pictures of 1 min.
Originally at F. received flyuorogramma with sizes of shot of 24 X 24 and 32 X 32 mm. Modern large picture frame F. with sizes of shot of 70 X 70 and 100 X 100 mm brings closer it on resolving power to a X-ray analysis (see). The fluoroscope — the device for viewing of pictures through a magnifying glass with increase in 1,5 or 3 times, and also the semi-automatic device for photochemical processing of a fluorographic film is included in the package of the photofluorograph.
The so-called obligatory contingents are subject to mass fluorographic inspection first of all. These are employees of child care facilities, enterprises of the food industry and public catering, product warehouses and shops, hairdressers, recruits, students of higher education institutions and pupils of technical schools, workers of various industries and agriculture, workers of transport, etc. For coverage inspection of the big contingents of urban and country people created standard stationary fluorographic offices at antitubercular clinics, policlinics,-tsakh and others to lay down. - the prof. institutions. Fluorographic inspection is carried out also by means of mobile fluorographic caravans, napr, autox-ray — the fluorographic installation mounted in inside of the bus. If necessary the photofluorograph is mounted in. - the car, on the boat, in a cabin of the helicopter.
Mass fluorographic inspection includes preparatory a dignity. - a gleam, work on an explanation inspections are more whole; the organization of inspection with ensuring coverage of all contingent investigated, viewing flyuorogramm, identification on them patol. changes, the organization of an additional examination and the direction of persons with the revealed diseases in corresponding to lay down. institutions. Improvement of the x-ray equipment, transition on large picture frame F., use of the electron-optical converter (see. X-ray apparatus) considerably developed F. also made it method not only early, but also final radiodiagnosis (diagnostic fluorography). Multiprojective and high-speed shooting allows to conduct functional fluorographic researches of bronchopulmonary system, went. - kish. a path, bilious ways, urine-vydelptelnoy of system, cardiovascular system, including in combination with an angiography (see).
The automated complexes created in recent years with use of computer aids and the automatic analysis of various details of the fluorographic image provide a possibility of operational processing of materials of large volume and the informational content received at mass inspections. It allows to obtain quickly data on incidence at medical examination of the population, to establish need and to plan priority of further inspection, to plan volume to lay down. - prof. of the help.
Bibliography: Bratel I. N., L and N -
denbraten L. And III e x - t e r A. I. Mass test fluorographic researches for detection of diseases of adnexal bosoms of a nose, M., 1977; Burenkov S. P. Results of antitubercular work in 1973 — 1978, Probl. tube., No. 1, page 6, 1980; Second All-Russian congress of radiologists and radiologists, L., 1966; Hermas
of V. V. k and L of an indensconce t e N of L. D. General medical examination of the population and problem of a radiology and radiology, Medical radio-gramophones., t. 29, No. 4, page 3, 1984; Kravchenko T. A. and
d river. Stationary X-ray fluorographic device 12F7, Vestn. rentgenol. and radio-gramophones., No. 5, page 87, 1979; Fundamentals of fluorography, under the editorship of I. G. Lagunova, L., 1965; The Radiological diagnostic method of nonspecific diseases of lungs, under the editorship of V. A. Kartavova, page 14, L., 1978; Sokolik L. I., Sh to about N-dynes A. N. and Leyk and V. E N. Radiodiagnosis of occupational diseases, Kiev, 1981; The Theory and practice of fluorography, under the editorship of P. D. Yaltsev, M., 1953; Chikirdin E. G. X-ray fluorographic apparatus, M., 1970; Richter R., Anger-stein W. u. S t e i n h a r t L. Ront-genbildverstarkerphotographie, Lpz., 1980.
I. G. Lagunova; E. G. Chikirdin (tekhn.).