FLEMING Alexander

From Big Medical Encyclopedia

FLEMING Alexander (Fleming Alexander, 1881 — 1955) is the English microbiologist, the Nobel Prize laureate (1945), the member London royal about-va.

Graduated from medical school at London un-those and underwent improvement on a number of disciplines, including surgery. Since 1908 worked as the bacteriologist of medical school in London, in the department headed by A. Wright. Since 1928 professor of bacteriology London un-that, since 1948 honorary professor, from 1946 to 1954 the head Ying-that microbiology in London.

Early works of A. Fleming were devoted to questions of vaccinotherapy (sml, diagnoses and etiologies inf. diseases. He offered a serological microdiagnostic method of syphilis and for the first time in England applied salvarsan to treatment of syphilis. During World War I (1914 — 1918) and in post-war years he was engaged in bacteriological diagnosis and development of methods of treatment of a wound fever (see). He investigated an etiological role of a hemophilic stick in infection of wounds. In relation to various microorganisms, in particular anaerobe bacterias,

A. Fleming developed quantitative methods of definition of efficiency of various antiseptic agents. In 1922 it opened antimicrobic action of the produced Micrococ-cus lysocleikticus of the factor called by it a lysozyme (see) and showed presence it in many liquids and tissues of the person, including in the lacrimal liquid and leukocytes.

In September, 1928 A. Fleming described a phenomenon, to-ry is considered to be the beginning of an era of antibiotics. He found out that around big colony of a mold (on a Petri dish) colonies of stafilokokk were exposed to a lysis and became transparent. In 1929 the first work was published, in a cut he called the substance formed by a mold Penicillium penicillin (see Penicillin), described its properties (an antimicrobic range, lack of toxicity) and assumed that penicillin can be used as means for treatment of the diseases caused by microorganisms, sensitive to it.

A. Fleming's works promoted development of chemotherapy of bacterial infections. He assumed that in the near future the substances which are specifically operating on causative agents of diseases in an organism of the patient and not damaging fabrics will be received. An ideal method of their use is introduction to a blood channel for the purpose of achievement of the center of an infection. As showed the subsequent experience, penicillin had such properties. Attempts at the beginning of the 30th to receive the stable purified drug of penicillin did not yield results. Resumption of work with a strain of Penicillium, allocation and purification of penicillin, its medicobiological studying and the first experiences of use for patients were carried out during World War II (1939 — 1945) in Oxford by T. Florey and Cheyn (E. V. Chain). For discovery of notatin. To Fleming together with G. Florey and Cheyn the Nobel Prize was awarded. Further A. Fleming offered methods of definition of biological activity of penicillin, the principles to-rykh are used now, and studied structural changes of bacterial cells under the influence of penicillin in detail.

A. Fleming was the honorary member of many academies of Sciences, honorary professor of high fur boots and the honourable citizen of many countries of the world. Scientific institutions, and streets of the cities in a number of the states are called by his name.

Portrait see on an insert, Art. 432.

Works: A "simple method of serum diagnosis of syphilis, Lancet, v. 1, p. 1512, 1909; On a remarkable bacteriologic element found in tissues and secretions, Proc. roy. Soc. B, v. 93, p. 306, 1922; On the antibacterial action of cultures of a penicillium, with special reference to their use in the isolation of B. influenzae, Brit. J. exp. Path., v. '10, p. 226, 1929; Lysozyme, President’s adress, Proc. roy. Soc. Med., v. 26, p. 71, 1932; Streptococcal meningitis treated with penicillin, Lancet, v. 2, p. 434, 1943.

Bibliography: Matveenko of Page A.

By century since the birth of Alexander Fleming, Mikrobiol. zhurn., t. 43, No. 5, page 670, 1981; M about r at and A. Zhizn Aleksandra Fleminga, the lane with fr., M., 1964. S. M. Navashin.