From Big Medical Encyclopedia

FLAVOURING SUBSTANCES — the substances used as the seasonings improving taste and a flavor of food. Various parts of plants (seeds, fruits, leaves, flowers, roots) having aromatic and flavoring properties belong to V. century. Century of century cause irritation of olfactory and flavoring receptors, excite secretion of digestive juices, promoting strengthening of appetite and increase in digestion of food. Irritant action of V. of century on olfactory receptors is caused by presence of the essential oils having the expressed aromatic properties. On organs of taste and directly on mucous membranes the irritating impact is exerted by the specific substances of various chemical structure (glucosides, alkaloids, etc.) which are contained usually as a part of V. century in small amounts. Due to the irritant action of V. of century on a mucous membrane of a digestive tract their use in clinical nutrition is limited, and at an aggravation of a number of diseases of a stomach, intestines, liver, kidneys, urinary tract is completely excluded. The group B. of the century (organic acids, essences, etc.) which are purposely brought in strictly dosed quantities in foodstuff in the course of their production belongs to to nutritional supplements (see).

Century of century of the vegetable nature subdivide into spices and spicy vegetables.

To spices, or spices, belong mustard (see), pepper (black, fragrant, red), bay leaf, caraway seeds, carnation, anise, cinnamon, ginger, cardamom, vanilla, nutmeg and saffron.

Black pepper (Piper nigrum) — the dried-up crude fruits of a creeping macrotherm from family peppery. Black pepper is used in the whole grains or in a ground look. Acute taste and a smell of black pepper depend on contents in it essential oil (0,9 — 2,5%) and alkaloid of volcanic tuff (5 — 9%). Admissible humidity no more than 12%.

Allspice — crude fruits of a tree of Pimenta officinalis from family of myrtaceous. Allspice contains apprx. 4% of essential oil, a cut gives it the expressed spiciness. Humidity of pepper shall be no more than 12%.

Red pepper (paprika) — powder from the ground dried-up fruits of a plant of Capsicum annuum L. or Capsicum longum DC. B structure of red pepper is the capsaicine causing acute, burning taste. Red color of pepper depends on the maintenance of a pigment in it — the capsanthin relating to carotinoids. Humidity of red pepper shall not exceed Also %.

Bay leaf — the dried-up leaves of noble laurels (Laurus nobilis L.). Presence at leaves of essential oil (2 — 3%) gives to bay leaf specific aroma. Humidity of bay leaf shall be not higher than 14%.

Caraway seeds — the dried-up fruits of a plant of Carvum carvi L. from family of umbrella. Contains 3 — 7% of essential oil, hl. obr. the carvon and limonene causing a smell of caraway seeds. Humidity of caraway seeds is allowed to 11 — 13%.

Cinnamon — a cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum ceylonicum) from family of laurel. Its smell depends on essential oil (1,3 — 1,5%), the consisting hl. obr. from cinnamic aldehyde. Admissible humidity of cinnamon to 10%. As synthetic drug the cinnamon essence consisting for 90% of cinnamic aldehyde is used; it is applied in the form of 30% of spirit.

Carnation — the dried-up flower buds of a clove tree (Caryophyllus aromaticus L.) from family of myrtaceous. Karyophyllene (3%) contains a significant amount (17 — 20%) of the essential oil including eygenol (90 — 92%) and terpene. The carnation contains in a large number tanning agents. In addition to food appointment (addition in marinades, forcemeat and river), the carnation is a source of receiving an eygenol necessary in production of vanillin, and the clove-stems essential oil used in the perfumery industry. Admissible humidity of a carnation is allowed not higher than 10%.

Anise — fruits of an essential oil-bearing plant of Pimpinella anisum L. from family of umbrella. The anise contains up to 3% of the essential oil including p-propenyl anisole, an estragoal, anisic aldehyde, etc. Humidity of an anise shall not exceed 10 — 12%.

Ginger — the dried-up rhizome of a macrotherm of Zingiber officinale Bose. In ginger there have to be essential oil not less than 1,5%, humidity is not higher than 12%.

Cardamom — fruits of a plant of Elettaria cardamonum from family of ginger. Contains 3 — 4% of essential oil. Admissible humidity is not higher than 12%.

Vanilla — the pods of a tropical orchid (Vanilla planifolia) subjected to fermentation and drying. Pods of vanilla as a result of processing get black-brown coloring and the expressed smell caused by presence at pods of vanillin (1,16 — 2,75%). On a surface of a pod of vanilla there can be a white crystal plaque of the taken shape vanillin. Vanilla in confectionery and bakery production is used.

Nutmeg — seeds of a muscat tree (Myristica fragrans) growing in the tropical countries. As a part of nutmeg apprx. 34% of fat and 4 — 15% radio oils. Nutmeg is used as flavoring, aromatic substance in culinary, confectionery and liqueur productions, and also for receiving the essential oil applied in medicine and the perfumery industry. Except nutmeg, it is applied muscat, (color or «maize»), representing the dried-up seed cover of nutmeg which is used in confectionery, culinary and perfumery production.

Saffron — the dried-up stigmas of flowers of a plant of Crocus sativus L. By outward represent the yellow-orange threads reminding threads of tobacco of the premium. The saffron is applied as colorant in confectionery, bakery and liqueur productions. The painting properties of a saffron depend on existence in its composition of glucoside-crocin. As a part of a saffron of 15% of water, 12,4% of nitrogenous substances, 13,3% of sugary substances, 5,6% of fat, 43,6% of extractive nitrogen-free substances, 4,5% of cellulose, 0,6% of essential oil and 4,3% of ashes. The saffron of high quality in number of 0,1 g shall paint 3 l of water in intensive-yellow color.

All types of spices shall meet requirements of the standard.

Carry parsley, fennel, a celery, a parsnip, garlic, onions to spicy vegetables, etc. (see. Greens food , Vegetables ).

Also carry to flavoring substances sodium chloride (see), vinegar (see. Food acids ), saccharin (see. Sweet substances ), glutamate of sodium (see) and vanillin.

Vanillin receive from guaiacol and lignosulphonates. Synthetic vanillin — crystal powder of white or light yellow color, a vanilla scent, t ° pl 80,5 — 82 °, water solubility 1: 20 (at t ° 80 °); content of vanillin is not less than 99%, ashes no more than 0,05%. Vanillin is used in food, perfumery and pharm. industries. In retail chain stores vanillin comes to mixes with icing sugar in the form of vanilla sugar.

Bibliography: Hygiene of food, under the editorship of. K. S. Petrovsky, t. 2, M., 1971; Pugovkin V. N. Merchandizing of flavoring goods, M., 19 70; Merchandizing of foodstuff, under the editorship of F. V. Tserevitinov, t. 3, M., 1949.

K. S. Petrovsky.