FYSTULA EKSPERIMENTALNYE (Latin fistula a tube) — openings (channels) created at animals in the surgical way; with their help hollow bodies are reported with the environment or with other bodies. T. aa. are intended for studying in hron. animal experiments of activity of the alimentary system and its separate bodies, mocheotdeleniye, speed of a blood-groove, composition of blood, etc.
Fistulas of various bodies, including fistulas of output channels of digestive glands, represent artificial fistulas, in to-rye fistulous tubes can be inserted. The fistulous technique gained the greatest development in an experimental fiziolo-
of Fig. 1. The diagrammatic representation of a fistula of the isolated piece of a small bowel: 1 — the isolated intestinal loop
with adjacent fabric; 2 — seams; 3 — an abdominal wall; 4 — a fistulous tube.
Fig. 2. The diagrammatic representation of an enteropancreatic fistula during experience (a) and out of experience: 1 — a pancreas; 2 — a small
pancreat duct; z — a big pancreat duct; 4 — a duodenum; 5 — a seam; 6 — the isolated segment of a duodenum; 7 — an interintestinal anastomosis; 8 — a branch of a fistulous tube in the isolated segment of a duodenum; 9 — the lower ring of a fistulous tube; 10 — a by-pass tube; 11 — a tube in a fistulous stopper; 12 — a fistulous stopper; 13 — an epiploon; 14 — a fistulous tube; 15 — an upper ring of the fistulous tube fixed in a duodenum. Shooters showed the direction of current of a secret of a pancreas and the liquid entered into a duodenum.
Giya of digestion, especially in works of I. P. Pavlov and his pupils.
The fistula of a stomach was for the first time offered V. A. Bass in 1842. Through such fistula it is possible to receive contents of a stomach, to enter various substances into a stomach, to consider the speed of their evacuation in intestines, to enter into a stomach sensors for registration of its motility, bioelectric activity, temperature, pH, etc. For receiving in hron. experiments of the pure gastric juice which is not mixed with other secrets and with food apply fistulas of the isolated ventricles (see the Ventricle isolated). For receiving a pure gastric juice impose a fistula on a stomach and at the same time on the gullet separated by an esophagotomy (see) from a stomach (see M and 11 m oye to about r m of l e N iye).
Many options of intestinal fistulas are developed. At side fistulas in thin (or thick) a gut insert one or several (an io-lifistulny technique) tubes, through to-rye during experience receive contents of various departments of intestines, enter the studied substances, sensors for studying of intra-intestinal processes. In a number of methods before a mustache motreno creation of intestinal fistulas with use of an external anastomosis between them. At the same time F. aa. establish in constantly or temporarily separated sites of a small bowel. Fistulas of the isolated pieces of a small bowel with labelloid sv
shchy one (more often than proximal) or both of them the ends are eurysynusic. Sometimes this piece is supplied with the fistulous tube (fig. 1) removed outside. Such fistulas give the chance to receive pure intestinal juice, to study motility and processes of absorption in the isolated departments of a gut.
Fistulas of channels of digestive glands create by change of a distal part of the canal on the surface of leather of animals. So remove channels of sialadens, pancreat ducts or the general bilious channel with a piece of a mucous membrane of an oral cavity. As at removal of channels outside the secret of glands does not participate in process of digestion, fistulous methods are developed, in to-rykh pancreatic juice or bile out of experience come to a duodenum. E.g., for receiving juice of a pancreas a fistula impose on a twelve-finger
a ny gut opposite to a channel of gland. Through a fistulous tube
during experience into the canal of gland for collecting juice enter a spaghetti. By other technique one end of a fistulous tube (tee)
is implanted in the isolated part of a duodenum with a pancreat duct, its second end — in fistula of a duodenum, and the third end is removed outside of and out of experience left to closed (fig. 2). During experience juice is taken away outside, and it is possible to enter various solutions into a gut, napr, stimulators punk reatiches which with ekretsii.
Fistulas of a gall bladder at the tied-up or intact general bilious channel were widely adopted. In nek-ry options of operation removal of bile is provided in a duodenum out of experience that prevents hron. loss of bile. The fistula of a gall bladder (fig. 3) is used generally for obtaining
Fig. 3. The diagrammatic representation of a bilious and intestinal fistula out of experience (a) when fistulous tubes are closed, and during experience (6) when the duodenal end of a tube is closed by a long stopper: 1 — a gall bladder; 2 — the general bilious channel; 3 — the place of its bandaging; 4 — a duodenum; 5 — an abdominal wall; 6 — traffic jams of fistulous tubes; 7 — a bilious and intestinal fistulous tube. Shooters showed
the direction of current of liquid.
bile and registration of motility of a gall bladder.
For studying of a mocheotdeleniye create a fistula of a bladder or bring ureters to skin.
Example F. aa. also Ekk's fistula — Pavlova representing an anastomosis between portal and lower hollow veins is (see the Liver, physiology). From the deep-located vessels apply a nashivaniye of fistulous tubes on blood vessels to receiving blood (see the Vasostomy).
Bibliography: Aliyev A. A. Operativ
ny methods of researches of farm animals, L., 1974; L about p at -
x and Yu. M N. Experimental surgery, page 29, M., 1971; Pavlov I. P. Complete works, t. 2, book 2, page 285, 536, M. — L., 1951; Speran
skaya E. H. Techniques of operations on dogs and carrying out chronic experiences in physiology, page 24, M. — L., 1953; Physiology of digestion, under the editorship of A. V. Solovyov, etc., L., 1974. G.F. Korotko.