FISHING INDUSTRY — the industry of the national economy which is engaged in production, transportation and processing of fish and seafood, a sea animal and seaweed in different types of food, medical, technical and art products. The structure of Genitive includes the fleet and coastal objects — ports, fish works and other seafood, fish-breeding spawning and growing and feeding farms. From the listed objects the expressed features concerning character and working conditions the fishing fleet has.
Fishing is made in the seas and oceans, internal reservoirs and the rivers. Depending on a type of fishing fishing vessels are equipped with the corresponding mechanisms and mother ships are subdivided on extracting, processing, priyemotransportny and auxiliary, and by the sizes on small, average, big (tuna, whaling, etc.).
Idiosyncrasy of work on fishing vessels is the round-the-clock stay of people on them in conditions when production factors (noise, vibration, radiations of ultrahigh and high frequency, etc.) and environmental factors (climate, the muscleman, etc.) continue the influence and in off-duty time.
Working conditions on vessels depend on climatic conditions of the navigation area and ship factors. Feature of sea climate is constant high relative humidity of air. According to bioclimatic classification the climate is subdivided on cold when water temperature and air has during the coldest period of year minus values (areas above 60 °C. and SL); moderate, with air temperature during the coldest period of year not lower than 10 ° and not higher than 20 ° (regions from 30 to 60 °C. and SL); hot, with air temperature during the coldest period of year higher than 20 ° (regions from 0 to 30 °C. and SL).
The deck and trawling teams working at the open deck of the vessel are affected first of all by meteorological factors: in northern areas also the general is quite often observed local cooling of an organism (see), overcoolings, and in tropical areas — disturbance thermal controls (see) from short-term thermal functional disturbances to thermal and a heliosis.
The close arrangement of production and household rooms, the round-the-clock stay of the person on the vessel within weeks and months demands specific approach to rationing of many adverse ship factors. The design of production and technological rooms and rooms for storage and transportation of fish products shall exclude influence of a microclimate of each of these placements on a microclimate of the neighboring rooms, in to-rykh live, a long time crew members of the vessel work or can stay. For production personnel shall be provided independent sanitary and household and a dignity. - a gigabyte. rooms.
Crews of vessel are more subject to fluctuations of atmospheric pressure, than working at the coast, and slamming (impact of wave blows of a hydrodynamic origin). Rather small sizes of vessels limit mobility of people. Broad use of polymeric synthetics, paints, varnishes, washing drugs in shipbuilding and on vessels demands a gigabyte. control. With increase in power of ship engines and vessel speeds increase levels noise (see) and vibrations (see). During the following of the vessel on width time zones constantly change that leads to disturbance of a daily biorhythm. During the following of the vessel on a meridian not only climatic factors, but also seasons change that leads to disturbance of annual biorhythms.
In the steering and mate cabin of a working condition are characterized by a peculiar microclimate, vibration, noise, influence electromagnetic fields (see). In the engine room considerable noise levels, vibrations, air temperatures and barriers, a gas contamination of air are noted carbon monoxide (see), oil products (see. Oil ), etc. In recent years vessels, management are under construction to-rymi it is completely automated and the machine team is brought from the engine room.
In workshops on processing of fish considerable temperature drops of air and high humidity are noted. Small injuries for the account often occur at ryboobrabotchik having pinned hands fins of fishes.
During the performance of work, and also at rest during rolling of the vessel (at nervousness of the sea more than 4 points) the level of energy costs increases by 10 — 30% •
The sizes and the area of inhabited and production rooms, parameters of a microclimate (tab.), noise levels, vibrations, lighting, the microwave oven, VCh, norm of water consumption, ergonomic requirements to the production equipment, panels and control levers are normalized by health regulations. E.g., norms of water consumption on 1 people a day on fishing vessels depending on their category make from 30 to 50 l of drinking water and from 40 to 100 l of economic and household (mytyevy) water. The attention to compliance of overalls, footwear to working conditions and climate is especially paid.
Implementation on vessels of mechanization and automation promotes simplification of work of fishermen, but does not exclude influence of adverse ship factors in operating time and rest. In this regard time of stay of the person on the vessel in the sea is normalized. In our country fiziologo-hygienic norms of marginal terms of stay of crews in swimming, depending on type of fishing vessels and trade zones are developed.
The structure of medical staff on vessels depends on the number of crew. On vessels numbering crew from 25 to 40 people there is a paramedic, 40 and more — the doctor, on mother ships and transport and refrigerator vessels — 3 — 4 doctors (the surgeon, the therapist, the stomatologist, etc.), and also duty paramedics. Vessels depending on category are equipped with out-patient clinic, the operating room, infirmary, the insulator, a drugstore.
All employees and again going to work on sea harvesting vessels annually, irrespective of a position, are exposed to medical survey according to the order of the Minister of Health of the USSR No. 1145 of November 6, 1981. «About carrying out preliminary, at revenues to work, and periodic medical examinations of floating structure of the sea, fishery fleet and workers and employees of support vessels of the Navy (N), and also persons coming to educational institutions on training of specialists for work on sea, fishery vessels and support vessels of the Navy». Besides, before flight the crew of the vessel undergoes medical examination in port and basin policlinics.
Table. Normative requirements to a microclimate in workplaces of crew personnel of fishing vessels in various navigation areas in summertime at air conditioning
Bibliography: Water supply of sea vessels of fishing fleet, under the editorship of L. I. El-gganer, M., 1977, bibliogr.; Occupational health and life on harvesting vessels in the Polar region, under the editorship of. Ya. E. Neyshtadt and L. I. Elpiner, M., 1967, bibliogr.; New work-rest schedules of fishermen in Northwest Atlantic, under the editorship of Yu. M. Stenko, Riga, 1974, bibliogr.; The guide to hygiene of the water transport, under the editorship of E. P. Sergeyev, M., 1974, bibliogr.
Yu. M. Hundred.