FISHERY AND HUNTING sports — a type of active recreation and a physical hardening in combination with production in nature fishes, wild birds and animals in the sports purposes. It is necessary to distinguish R. and the lake amateur from trade. The last aim at production of fish and wildings for receiving meat, furs, fish products for needs of the population, being essentially one of productive forms of activity of the person (see. Fishing industry ).
For athletes fishers and hunters production is not end in itself. R.'s occupations and the lake allow them to communicate closely with the nature, to learn its greatness and beauty. The hunter and the fisher shall be the versatile athlete. Courage, endurance, observation, ability to be guided by areas, readiness to make many kilometers transitions, sometimes on the cross-country terrain, ability to float and row, overcome any whims of the nature, and to the hunter besides — to own firearms are inherent to it.
The Soviet legislation provides the right of fishing by sports tackles to all citizens of the USSR everywhere. The exception is made by territories of state reserves, and also reservoirs used for the purpose of fish farming. All types of rods, spinnings, circles belong to sports fishing tackles. Networks, seines, drag nets, fish-traps, elevators are trade tackles, their use in the amateur purposes is strictly limited or forbidden at all. Use for fishing of explosive substances, electric discharges, the stupefying means, firearms and jails is everywhere strictly forbidden by the law. Such ways of production of fish belong to poaching with attraction guilty of it to responsibility according to current laws. Depending on local conditions the allowed size of a catch a day, and also species of fish are established by one fisher administrative bodies, ban is imposed on catching to-rykh.
The Soviet legislation also provides the right of hunting to citizens of the USSR on all territory of the country, but only in strictly specified grounds, as a rule, assigned to various hunting societies. Hunting in the state reserves, wildlife areas, settlements and nek-ry areas which are especially determined by administrative bodies is strictly forbidden.
Wild animals and birds are in the USSR under protection of the state. On such rare representatives of fauna as, for example, bisons, snow leopards, pendents, tigers, leopards, polar bears, bustards, little bustards, cranes, swans, a flamingo and nek-ry others, included in «The Red List of the USSR», hunting is prohibited at all. On a number of animals (e.g., an elk, a boar, a brown bear, an otter, a marten) hunting only in the defined places on special permissions — licenses is allowed.
Hunting is allowed with use of the fire smooth-bore weapon registered in bodies of the Ministry of Internal Affairs. Use of cut weapon is allowed only in the presence of special permission. Hunting without documents allowing its carrying out, a prohibited weapon or way and also on the animals and birds who are under a ban in the prohibited places and in the prohibited terms is poaching, a cut is pursued by the law. The resolved types of hunting are limited to the terms established by special bodies.
Fans fishers and hunters combine in societies of hunters and fishers of federal republics. Local links of such societies are primary collectives created on production or territorial signs. The right for hunting is granted only to members of society of hunters and fishers.
The river and the lake well influence health of the person, first of all a nervous system, being followed by preferential positive emotions. On hunting or fishing there is blackout from daily everyday and office disorders and troubles. These sports connected with exercise stresses, a physical activity promote maintenance of normal activity of cardiovascular and respiratory systems. However fishery and, first of all, hunting conceal in themselves also possibilities of an adverse effect on health. As a rule, it is seasonal sports, lack of interseasonal trainings can entail on the first departure in cases of excessive exercise stresses the most serious effects. It concerns, first of all, to people of advanced age, and also suffering from cardiovascular or pulmonary insufficiency. Also overcooling can cause negative effects in the persons having radiculitis, hron. diseases of a respiratory organs and so forth.
Considering that hunters and fishers, as a rule, unlike representatives of other types of physical culture, are not exposed to systematic special dispensary inspection, they should recommend, especially but achievement of advanced age or in the presence of this or that chronic pathology, to consult on the doctor about admissible degree of all types of loadings, inherent hunting or fishing. It is about possible overcooling, overfatigue, disturbances of food, day regimen and so forth. At observance of reasonable approach, the corresponding preparation and following to medical councils of R. and the lake can be recommended to almost all people of any age and a profession. However doctors should remember that, not to mention mentally sick, hunting is contraindicated to persons with the increased psychological excitability.
Hunting, especially on a large animal, quite often is followed by accidents up to deaths. By data of forensic medical examination and investigative practice it is proved that in the majority these cases are result of violations of the rules of hunting. Such violators most often are the beginners, unexperienced hunters who are mistakenly allowed in structure of the collectives which are carrying out the hunting for a large animal connected with bullet firing or faces excessively emotional with an unbalanced nervous system and also the sakhmo-sure, undisciplined people who are laying claim to the hunter.
First of all treat holding strict examination in an okhotminimum at the accession to society, observance of the existing instructions rules of hunting, unconditional discharge from hunting of violators. Acceptance of alcoholic beverages before hunting is the worst disturbance. The existing instructions provided rules of conduct of the hunter at any kinds of hunting. In particular, it is regulated vrekhmya when the hunter has the right to load the gun and when he is obliged to discharge it, zones of the admissible directions of a shot are defined, it is strictly forbidden to shoot at not clear purposes, and also in the wood at the level of human height and so forth. During the conducting forensic medical examination of the accidents which happened on hunting it is necessary to pay first of all attention to identification of the specified and other violations of the rules of hunting.
The huge role in collective hunting is played by the elected or appointed manager from among the most experienced hunters, instructions to-rogo shall be observed unconditionally. He is obliged before each hunting to carry out detailed instructing, to monitor strictly steady observance of all rules of hunting and to discharge violators of further carrying out hunting. Manifestation of liberalism to violators is inadmissible. Practice demonstrates what at observance of all rules of hunting of accidents practically does not happen.
Hunters and fishers should be guided by the following hygienic rules. In summertime the clothes of the fisher and hunter shall be air-permeable, easy, protecting from the sun and a rain, not interfering breath. It is more preferable to use suits from light fabrics, to-rye well reflect sunshine. The headdress shall protect the head and a face from hit of direct sunshine and not to complicate a thermolysis. In the winter the clothes shall be warm, rather easy, excluding overheating at long walking (wadded jackets and trousers, a short fur coat are convenient). For protection against wind and rainfall it is desirable to have a light raincoat from wind-shelter fabric. For winter fishing it is necessary to recommend woolen linen and a sweater. Footwear shall be easy, free and warm. Usual valenoks with galoshes meet these requirements. It is recommended to put on clean cotton socks legs and atop — woolen socks. The most convenient headdress should be considered a cap with ear-flaps, on hands — fur mittens. Hunters and fishermen shall have reserve change of linen and the first-aid kit with dressing means.