FYSHER Emil (Fischer Emil, 1852 — 1919) is the German chemist, the Nobel Prize laureate (1902), the foreign member of the St. Petersburg academy of Sciences (1899).
Studied chemistry in Bonn and in Strasbourg under the leadership of A. Bayer; in 1874 received degree of the doctor.
Upon termination of an unt became A. Bayer's assistant in Munich; since 1882 professor of chemistry in Erlangena, and since 1885 — in the Würzburg; since 1892 occupied department of organic chemistry in Berlin.
E. Fischer laid the foundation for systematic studying of the major classes biol. connections (proteins, carbohydrates, purines, tannins, etc.). He synthesized and studied a number of amino acids, developed a method of division of their mixes. It developed various methods of hydrolysis of proteins, a method of synthesis of polypeptides and their properties (ability to be split by enzymes) are studied, their connection with a structure of a proteinaceous molecule, etc. is established. As a result of comparative analysis of properties of synthetic peptides and products of incomplete hydrolysis of proteins it for the first time obtained the convincing evidence of a peptide structure of proteins (see Proteins). E. Fischer defined structure and spatial configuration of molecules of sugars, carried out synthesis nek-ry of their derivatives, investigated many natural glycosides (see), the purine and pirimidinovy bases also were carried out by their synthesis (see the Pirimidinovy bases. Purine bases); studied a structure and carried out synthesis of tannins (see). The rational formula of many coal -
vod is established to them (see), their classification is developed. A number of works of E. Fischer is devoted to specificity of effect of enzymes (see), to value of spatial configuration of substrate for enzymatic action. Together with Moehring (J. Mering) on the basis of a research of structure and properties of barbital (see) it opened barbiturates.
Verbindungen des Plienylhydrazins mit den Zuckerarten, Berl. dtscb. Ges., Bd 17, S. 579, 1884; Die Chemie der Koh-lenhydrate und ihre Bedeutung fiir die Physiologie, B., 1894;
Untersuchungen iiber Aminosauren, Polypeptide und Proteine, B., 1906.
Bibliography: Beckman n,
Gedacht-nisrede auf Emil Fischer, S. - B. Preuss. Akad. Wiss., S. 698, 1920; H o e s with h K. Emil Fischer, Sein Leben und sein Work, B., 1921; To oss el A. Emil Fiocher, Hoppe-Seylers Z. physiol, With hem., Bd 108, S. i; 1919 — 1920.