From Big Medical Encyclopedia

FIRST AID, first aid — a complex of urgent, elementary actions for rescue of human life and for the prevention of complications at the accident, an injury or a sudden disease which are carried out on site incidents. The pct usually consists in elimination of influence of a disturbing factor (release from under the fallen weight, extraction from water, the burning room and suppression of the burning clothes etc.), rendering acute medical aid (a stop of bleeding, an artificial respiration, splinting etc.), the organization of transportation of the victim in to lay down. - professional, establishment. The pct appears the victim — a self-care or the companion, the relative, the employee of GAI or other person which was nearby — mutual assistance (see. Self-care and mutual assistance ). Results of further treatment, and sometimes and life of the victim quite often depend on timeliness and quality of rendering Pct. Quite often the Pct should be rendered in the workshop, the field, the apartment, at the road etc. Therefore workers, separate public and professional groups of the population (employees of militia, transport, miners, etc.), but also all population of the country study receptions of Pct not only all medical and pharm. In the USSR at schools, technical training colleges, the highest and average special educational institutions training of pupils and students in rules of rendering Pct is organized.

Training of the population is conducted by medics according to the program of the Union about-in Red the Cross and Red Crescent of the USSR in circles, to-rye are created at the enterprises, in collective farms, institutions etc. At the enterprises the sanposta equipped with the first-aid kit, tires, a stretcher etc. will be organized. Rendering most and mutual assistance is of great importance when people work or have a rest small groups or on one (logging, in the field, a tourist campaign etc.).

Actions for rendering Pct come down generally to elimination (reduction) of the frustration and complications arising owing to an injury, accident, bleeding, an apnoea, shock etc. They are carried out, as a rule, on site incidents. At the same time the elementary medical equipment and make-shifts are used. At the combined defeats priority of actions is important, edges is defined by character and weight of each damage. At strong outside bleeding (see) first of all it is necessary to stop it by imposing of a compressing bandage, manual pressing, imposing of a styptic plait, etc. At an apnoea it is necessary to clear respiratory tracts of slime, water, etc. and to carry out artificial respiration (see). At shock first of all fight against pain is necessary: the maximum rest, an immobilization of the struck part of a body (see. Immobilization ), warming of the patient, the drinks reducing sharpness of pain, injection administration of sedatives are recommended. At a cardiac standstill it is carried out indirect cardiac massage (see). At changes the immobilization of area of a change and taking a step, eliminating (warning) the general reaction of an organism to an injury (a faint, a collapse, shock) is necessary. At thermal burns for the purpose of the prevention of infection the fastest closing of a burn surface with a dry aseptic bandage, and in the absence of that imposing of a bandage with alcohol (vodka) is required. At chemical burns medical aid depends on the chemical substance which caused damage. So, at burns to-tami (except sulfuric) it is necessary to wash an affected area a stream of a cold water or solution of alkali (soap water, solution of hydrosodium carbonate), area of the burn caused by alkalis — to wash out a water jet, and then to process weak solution acetic to - you; then the aseptic bandage or a bandage moistened with solution for processing of burns is applied. At an electric trauma immediate cancellation of a current is necessary; local damages at the same time close a dry aseptic bandage, give anesthetics, in the absence of breath perform CPR, at a cardiac standstill — its indirect massage. During the drowning it is necessary to clear respiratory tracts of water and to make an artificial respiration; in the absence of cordial activity the indirect cardiac massage is at the same time carried out. At poisonings with carbon and lighting gas of the victim immediately delete from this room, and at weak breath or its absence such actions as an artificial respiration, grinding of a body, hot hot-water bottles to legs, short-term steam inhalation of solution of ammonia are necessary. At food poisonings it is necessary to wash out immediately a stomach water (see. Gastric lavage ), to give to the patient plentiful drink (tea, coffee), laxative. At acute diseases of an abdominal cavity the patient needs to create rest, on a stomach to put a bubble with ice or a cold water.

After rendering Pct in case of need the victim is transported in to lay down. - professional, establishment. Transportation shall be bystry, in most sparing situation. For this purpose use or special means of transport (a dignity. cars, dignity. airplanes, helicopters), or other means of transport.

First aid in field conditions consists in carrying out directly in the battlefield (in the center of mass defeat) the elementary urgent medical actions directed to rescue of life of the wounded (struck), the prevention of serious consequences and development of complications of wound (defeat), and also to reduction or complete cessation of impact on the wounded of the striking factors. The pct appears the victim (self-care), his companion (mutual assistance) or hospital attendants, shooters - sanita-rami, saninstruktor.

Pct as an initial element of system of rendering medical aid by the wounded it was carried out in the period of the organization of standing armies. With development of military medicine of an action of Pct extended. Being limited during the early periods of development of military medicine by imposing of a bandage on a wound, in the subsequent Pct began to include also temporary stop of outside bleeding, an immobilization at fractures (extensive injuries) of extremities; at the same time always the great value was attached to timeliness of rendering Pct.

In days of the Great Patriotic War of 1941 — 1945 the effective organization of Pct played an important role in achievement of good results of treatment of wounded and patients. According to the generalized data, those years it more than in 65% of cases was rendered within the first 30 min. from the moment of wound, in half of cases — immediately after wound, St. 38% were necessary on most and mutual assistance, 53% of wounded it was rendered by hospital attendants and saninstruktor, in 84,4% of cases — in the battlefield.

Value of Pct in conditions sovr, fighting sharply increases. The become complicated nature of a fighting injury, its weighting, high probability of emergence of the multiple, combined and combined defeats, especially at emergence mass a dignity. losses, complicates timely and high-quality rendering Pct to all persons in need in it the wounded (struck). In this regard all staff of army and fleet shall be able to render it. In system of military-medical preparation training sessions of all staff to rules of rendering Pct in a fighting situation, to mastering means of an individual @snashcheniye are given.

The pct appears in the battlefield, in military equipment (the tank, the infantry fighting vehicle, etc.).

In field conditions treat actions of Pct: suppression of the burning clothes (incendiary mixes on regimentals or a body surface), carrying out an artificial respiration, putting on on the wounded (struck) gas mask, a temporary stop of outside bleeding by an applying a tourniquet or a compressing bandage, introduction of antidotes, the means stopping priming reaction on radiation, an injection of anesthetics, imposing of an aseptic bandage on a wound or area of a burn, a transport immobilization, giving antibiotics, removal of the wounded (struck) out of borders of the contaminated (infected) site of the area.

During the rendering Pct use means of individual equipment of staff, including first-aid dressing kits (see. Package dressing individual ), the individual first-aid kit (see. First-aid kits ), appropriate means from an army medical bag: plaits are styptic, S-shaped tubes air ducts for artificial ventilation of the lungs, bandage and antiburn bandages, anesthetics, antidotes and antibiotics. For rendering Pct to wounded crew members (landing) tanks and infantry fighting vehicles also means from onboard first-aid kits can be used.

First aid by the ships it appears by all ships of the Navy and precedes established on them pre-medical, the first medical or qualified medical aid (see. medical care ). By the small ships (rocket, torpedo boats, etc.) operating in insignificant removal from the coast, this type of medical aid by the wounded (struck) is only before return of the ship to base. In daily conditions of Pct it appears usually regular structure of medical service in out-patient clinic of the ship or directly on site incidents, in a fighting situation — on fighting posts fighting hospital attendants, hospital attendants-porters, and also as most and mutual assistance.

Each sailor and the officer shall have practical skills on rendering Pct at wounds, thermal and chemical burns, the closed damages, an electric trauma, drowning, a thermal shock, gassings and other types of defeats. On all fighting posts of the ship posts of first aid led by fighting hospital attendants will be organized. Since for ensuring survivability of the ship in emergencies (flooding, the fires in compartments, etc.) all doors of waterproof partitions (partitions) on fighting alarm are battened down (are closed tightly), the movement between compartments stops that causes probability of long forced stay of victims on site of wound (defeat), posts are equipped with ship first-aid kits, to-rye contain means and tools for P.'s rendering of m of the item: the styptic plait, an air duct for an artificial respiration of companies in a mouth, scissors, tires, etc. Besides, for the period of fighting to all staff of the ships are given for rendering most and mutual assistance individual dressing rooms and antigas packages, individual first-aid kits. Evacuation of wounded and struck on point of medical care of the ship is carried out with the permission of commanders of fighting posts. Intra-ship transportation of the wounded (struck), who lost ability to independent movement is carried out on a dignity. or a special collapsible ship stretcher (see. Stretcher ).

First aid in civil protection — the elementary medical events held in the center of defeat and directed to rescue of life struck from among the civilian population. Pct before arrival in the center of formations of GO render struck as a self-care and mutual assistance, and also the staff of formation of GO in the working changes on objects of the national economy and in remained to lay down. - the prof. institutions. With input in the center of defeat of forces and means of GO rendering Pct makes also staff a dignity. teams (jm. A team sanitary) and all formations participating in rescue and urgent emergency recovery operations; at the same time it is carried out search and collecting struck (see). Sites of works dignity. to teams define, proceeding from given the carried-out investigation, heads of rescue operations.

Actions of Pct in GO are identical to the events held in armed forces directly in the battlefield or in the centers of defeat. After rendering the Pct struck direct in group of first aid (see).

See also Poisonings , medical care .

Bibliography: V. M. brawlers. First aid, M., 1978; Vishnevsky A. A. and Sh r and y e p M. I. Field surgery, M., 1975; Military-medical preparation, under the editorship of D. D. Kuvshinsky, page 15, M., 1978; Isakov I. I., Messel M. A. and Khromov B. M. Acute therapeutic and surgical management, JI., 1969; Kovalenko V. Ya. and Fish with about in V. A. Delivery of health care by the victim of nuclear weapon, M., 1964; Experience of the Soviet medicine in the Great Patriotic War of 1941 — 1945, t. 1, M., 1951, t. 35, page 68, M., 1955; The Guide to traumatology for health service of civil protection, under the editorship of A. I. Kazmin, M., 1978; The Textbook for preparation of sanitary druzhinnitsa, sanitary teams and sanitary posts, under the editorship of F. G. Zakharov, M., 1978.

I. V. Shatkin; V. A. Grin (soldier.), V. A. Katonin (Navy), G.E. Kharlamov (medical service GO),