From Big Medical Encyclopedia

FIREARMS — weapon in which for ejection of a shell from the channel of a trunk the pressure force of the gases which are formed at combustion of explosive substance or special gas mixtures will use.

The lake of the lake is used in wars for the purpose of defeat of manpower of the opponent more than 500 years. Sovr. The lake of the lake is subdivided into two basic groups: the small arms, the striking element to-rogo are a bullet, and artillery weapon, at to-rogo means of a direct injury ammunition of explosive action (shells, mines) serve.

The small arms are used in infighting for defeat of openly located purposes. It turns on guns, automatic machines, automatic rifles, different types of machine guns, and also fowling pieces. In some foreign armies there is an intensive process of improvement of small arms on the way of reduction of caliber, weight reduction and reduction of dimensions of separate samples, increases in fire power due to bigger rate of fire, creation of mnogopulny cartridges, increases in accuracy and a grouping of fire. Much attention is paid to improvement of ballistic characteristics of bullets.

Artillery weapon is intended for defeat of the various purposes at considerable distance and turns on tools of various types (the gun, howitzers, mortars, recoilless tools, etc.), and also reactive systems of volley fire.

The striking action of the ammunition applied in different types of artillery weapon in many respects is defined by their caliber, type of ammunition, power of explosion and a route of administration. Improvement of explosive substances led to significant increase in power of explosions, and also a shockwave as one of the striking factors. Idiosyncrasy sovr, ammunition of explosive action is education during explosion of splinters of the set weight and the size that provides high initial velocity of flight of splinters and preservation of rather high speed of their flight from the place of explosion at a great distance.

Increase in the area of defeat is reached by use of explosions with the directed flight of splinters, use of the mines which are blowing up over the Earth's surface of cassette shells, and also ammunition filled with the ready striking elements in the form of balls, arrows, cubes, etc. to-rye sometimes make of X-ray low-contrast material.

The striking O.'s action by the lake is defined by many factors, the main thing from to-rykh the speed of flight of a shell and its ballistic characteristics are. The most characteristic feature of all types of fire shells (bullets, splinters, the striking elements) is high initial velocity of flight that causes their big motive energy (1500 — 3000 J for small arms above for splinters). High-speed small-caliber bullets during the flight are on a limit of the stability and, getting to fabrics, Wednesday more dense, than air, lose the stability, thereby increasing the area of contact with fabrics; at the same time the speed of braking of a shell increases. All these factors cause bystry power transmission of a hurting shell to fabrics with the advent of effect of interstitial explosion, at the same time a part of the destroyed fabrics, moving with high speed, get a role of secondary shells. Immediately after passing of a hurting shell through fabrics the temporary pulsing cavity is formed, edges by the sizes much more exceeds the size of the shell. It is established that the speed of a shell is more and the its situation is less steady, the it is more sizes of the pulsing cavity and damage of the fabrics surrounding the wound channel. To some extent the sizes of the damaged zone depend also on an anatomic structure of fabrics, their density, expansibility, mobility, funkts, states.

Heterogeneity of a structure of various fabrics of one anatomic area or separate body, alternation of fabrics of various density, elasticity and mobility lead to their uneven damage both on the course of the wound channel, and on the periphery from it. Thus, completely destroyed fabric structures are combined with fabrics, viability to-rykh is lowered. More energy from a hurting shell is transferred to more dense, fixed, having a lobular structure fabrics, and their damages are, as a rule, more considerable.

For protection of the head against splinters of secondary shells and bullets helmets are used. The helmets of various form and a design made of steel are most widespread. On foreign sources in some armies helmets from synthetics which it is much easier steel are developed. Besides, also special protective suits are developed for protection of a breast, a stomach and a back protective to a vein-lety. For production of protective vests special high-strength steel grades, ceramics are used, and in recent years for these purposes synthetic material like «кевлар» is used (USA). Vests from this material are stronger steel, constrain the movements easier less. Suits are developed for protection of a trunk, legs, the head, however they are quite heavy and are used by the personnel which are in fighting vehicles, helicopters.

Judicial ballistics — the discipline studying a materiel of manual O. of the lake and ammunition to it and also the phenomena connected with a shot and its striking action. It is important at investigation of the crimes committed using O. by the lake. In these cases carry out expertize of a shot, ammunition, weapon, shot sleeves and bullets, using comparative microscopy and an epimikroskopiya, the photo, an issue spectral analysis, rentgeno-and a gammagrafiya, researches in ultraviolet and infrared rays, etc. At judicial and ballistic examination establish the place of a shot, a possibility of its aim production at this distance, find out questions of belonging of cartridges to this look and a sample of weapon, ways of their production and equipment, suitability to firing, looking alike the cartridges presented for comparison; define a look, caliber, a sample and a copy of weapon, its technical operability, and also an opportunity spontaneous (without pressing a trigger) a shot. For establishment of a look and a specific copy of weapon special value has a research of shot sleeves and bullets since after a shot on them there are deformations, characteristic of this copy of weapon, and other changes.

At court. - a medical research the expert shall establish a distance, about a cut the shot, and its direction was made. Distinguish a shot in an emphasis, an incomplete emphasis, a shot within action (2 — 5 m) of the components (impact on clothes and skin of prebullet air, a soot of a shot, implementation of fragments of grains of gunpowder, sedimentation of splashes of lubricating mineral oils) accompanying it and a shot outside action of these components. At a shot in an emphasis on clothes and a body there is a stamp print of the dulny end of weapon (shtants-brand) allowing to identify a type of weapon in many cases. At the damages put from shot weapon, distance with to-rogo the shot was made, it is possible to determine by the nature of dispersion of fraction. Court. - the medical expert establishes entrance and output bullet wounds, properties and the direction of the wound channel, the direction of a shot and position of a body of the victim at the time of a shot, prescription of causing damages. At multiple fire damages define, besides, the sequence of shots, a look and a sample of weapon for each damage separately.

See also Wounds, wounds .

Bibliography: Alexandrov L. N., Dyskin E. A. and Ozeretskovsky L. B. Zavisimost of the nature of a fighting injury from change of caliber of small arms, Voyen. - medical zhurn., No. 3, page 23, 1967; Denkovsky A. R. Sketches of pathological anatomy of a bullet wound, M., 1969, bibliogr.; Dyskin E. A. Modern ideas of the mechanism of gunshot wounds, Voyen. - medical zhurn., No. I, page 19, 1972; Lisitsyn K. M., Shaposhnikov Yu. G. and Rudakov B. Ya. The features of modern wound ballistics defining character and volume of surgical treatment of a bullet wound, Vestn. USSR Academy of Medical Sciences, No. 3, page 47, 1979; Experience of the Soviet medicine in the Great Patriotic War of 1941 — 1945, t. 1, page 19, M., 1952; Berlin R. H. and. lake of Local effects of assault rifle bullets in live tissues, Acta chir, scand., suppl. 459, 1976; Gestewitz H. R. Der Einsatz von Kugelbomben der US-Flie-gerkrafte gegen die Demokratische Republik Vietnam und ihre Wirkung, Z. Militarmed., S. 263, 1968; Proceedings of the Symposium on wound ballistics, ed. by T. Seeman, Stockholm, 1979; Tompkins J. S. The weapons of world war III, N. Y., 1966.

Yu. G. Shaposhnikov; Century of H. Hooks (court. - medical).