FINLAND, F and N of l I am a N d-
ska I the Republic — the state located in Northern Europe. Borders on the USSR, Sweden and Norway. From the South and the West of the coast of Finland wash waters of the Baltic Sea, its gulfs — Finnish and Botnichesky. Length of the coastline (without tortuosity) — 1100 km. The area of 337 thousand sq.km, apprx. 1/3 it is behind the Polar circle. Apprx. Vio of the territory of Finland occupy internal waters, with hl. obr. lakes. The population apprx. 4,8 million people (1982). The capital — Helsinki (484 thousand zhit., 1982). Administrative division — 12 provinces,
to-rye are subdivided into counties. Ofits. languages — Finnish and Swedish.
T. — bourgeois parliamentary republic. The head of state — the president elected as two-sedate elections for 6 years. The supreme legislative body — the unicameral parliament elected for 4 years. Executive power is assigned to the State Council created of premieres - the minister. Local control in provinces is exercised of board headed by the governor appointed by the president. Partial autonomy is provided to the Áland islands. Local governments in communes are the city and village utility councils elected for 4 years.
On the most part of the territory of the country plains prevail. The central part has numerous lake hollows, a coastal part is strongly dismembered by numerous small bays and abounds with shkher. The climate is moderate, transitional from sea to continental and continental (in the north).
T. — the industrial and agrarian country with the modern industry both intensive rural and forestry.
The main natural wealth of the country — the wood (apprx. 65% of the territory). From minerals are available titanomagnez ita, copper, zinc, iron rudyg nickel, granite, marble, etc.
In economic life of the country an important role is played by monopolies, 50 the largest of them control 3/4 industrial capitals and make more than a half of all industrial output. The share of public sector in the industry makes more than 18%. In world industrial production on a share F. 0,36% are necessary, but in a number of the industries (pr-in cellulose, papers, papermaking machines) she takes the leading place. The main direction of agriculture — livestock production (yields more than 70% of revenues from page - x. productions), hl. obr. milk, and also production of grain.
The national structure of the population is rather homogeneous. St. 93% of the population — Finns, the others — Swedes (St. 6%) and few nationalities of the North Sami (falls). The population of the country increases slowly, hl. obr. because of a small natural increase and traditional emigration (in 1945 — 1974 the country was left by 400 thousand people). The main vital rates are presented in the table. Average population density 14,2 people on 1 sq.km, lives in the southern part of the country 90% of all population. In the cities lives apprx. 60% of the population (in 1950 — 32,3%). Hutorny resettlement is characteristic of rural areas.
Child mortality for the last 30 years has a steady tendency to decrease — in 1980, on the materials published in editions of WHO, it made 7,6 on 1000 live-born (44,0 in 1950; 21,0 in 1960;
11,8 in 1971). Maternal mortality in 1979 — 0,06 on 1000 childbirth. The average duration of the forthcoming life in 1979 made for men — 69, for women — 77,7 years. During 1966 — 1980 the number of faces are aged more senior than 65 years increased from 8,5% to 11,9%, and the number of children aged up to 15 years was reduced from 26,5% to 20,3%.
The structure of incidence in the country for post-war years underwent certain changes. Sharply incidence of tuberculosis decreased. Tuberculosis occurs at children extremely seldom: last time tubercular meningitis was registered in 1966. However incidence of tuberculosis among persons aged from 50 is reduced to 70 years slowly. In 1980 2247 new cases of all forms of tuberculosis were registered. Poliomyelitis and diphtheria are liquidated, the number of the registered cases of a viral hepatitis, typhoid, a paratyphoid, whooping cough sharply decreased. At the same time growth of incidence of cardiovascular diseases, malignant new growths is noted. The important problem for health care of the country is made by rheumatism, accidents, mental diseases.
In 1979 the leading place among causes of death belonged to diseases of the blood circulatory system (493,0 on 100 thousand population, or 53,5%), to malignant new growths (190.6 on 100 thousand population, or 20,7%), to accidents, poisonings and injuries — 79,2 (8,6%), to diseases of a respiratory organs — 62,3 (6,7%) and digestive organs — 24,1 (2,6%).
The most widespread inf. diseases (in number of the registered cases) in 1980 — 1981 were gonorrhea — 9472 (1980), scarlet fever — 6740 (1981), measles — 3803 (1981), parotitis — 2942 (1981), sal-monelleza — 2145 (1981), syphilis — 51 (1980), whooping cough —
187 (1980), a viral hepatitis — 60 (1980), paratyphus — 19 (1980). At the same time gradual decrease in number of the registered cases of fresh syphilis is annually noted, at the same time the quantity of the registered cases of acute gonorrhea steadily increases.
The state system of insurance on a case of a disease captured all population of the country; are compensated to patients apprx. 60% of expenses on payment of medical services, 75% of expenses on diagnostic testings, 50% of expenses on acquisition of medicines (100% — at a row hron. diseases), and also part of the hauling charges connected with visits medical uchrezh
deniye. From the same funds the maternity leave is paid.
The leadership in activity to lay down. - by the prof. of institutions it is assigned to local governments. Mines-in of social security and health care exercises control of issue of licenses for the right of medical practice, of financial activity of BC, compensates expenses of communes on the purposes of health care (as a rule, within 50%), and also plans and finances scientific research.
In 1980 in the country there were more than 680 BCs on 74 292 beds. The greatest number of beds are the share of therapeutic departments (26 716) and psychiatric-tsy (20 061). In most BC there are also beds used by private medical practitioners. In everyone there would be out-patient department performing functions of the consulting and diagnostic center and reception. The considerable attention is paid to development of day hospitals. Out-patient and polyclinic help is given as the utility centers of health care (apprx. 2/z all visits), and private medical practitioners. The utility centers of health care, as a rule, service 10 — 20 thousand population (on internal boleznyakhm, professional pathology, protection of motherhood and the childhood, health protection of school students, the dental surgery help and physical therapy). Besides, in 1976 there were 46 tubercular clinics, 86 psychiatric centers and 19 rheumatological clinics.
V F. for many years there is a control system for a dignity. - a gigabyte. state of environment. All municipalities are available specially prepared a dignity. inspectors. In 1972 the Head department of labor protection is founded. Control of sources of water supply and quality of drinking water carries out National council on water resources. Standards on mikrobiol., physical and chemical characteristics of drinking water are established by National council of health care. All necessary mikrobiol., immunobiol. and chemical researches are carried out in the central and
7 regional state laboratories of public health care. The same laboratories carry out eggidemiol. researches also make vaccines.
In 1981 in the country 9538 doctors (19,9 for 10 000 population), 4068 dentists, 5079 druggists, 850 midwifes, 45 048 nurses and their assistants, etc. worked. Training of doctors is carried out on 5 medical f-takh high fur boots and in colleges. Annually more than 400 doctors are issued. The system of constant improvement of doctors in the country is not available.
Medico-biol. researches are decentralized, are conducted both on a medical f-takh of high fur boots, and on the basis of the state laboratories of public health care and large BCs. Researches in the field of health services are coordinated by the commission of Academy of Sciences. Researches in the field of occupational health and occupational diseases are concentrated in Ying-those professional hygiene.
VITAL RATES of FINLAND from 1969 to 1981 (for 1000 the population)
the Bibliography: Health services in Europe, t. 2, Copenhagen, WHO, 1983; The Countries and the people, Foreign Europe, under the editorship of Yu. V. Bromley, etc., page 96, M., 1981; The sixth review of a condition of health care in the world, 1973 — 1977, the p. 2, page 357, Geneva, WHO, 1981; Tervejdenhuolto, Laakin-tohallituksen vuosikirya 1979 — 1980, Helsinki, 1981: World health statistics annual 1983, Geneva, 1983. M of H. Savelyev.