From Big Medical Encyclopedia

FILM ENDOSCOPY (cinema + endoscopy) — a method of the combined use of the film and endoscopic equipment for obtaining objective documentation in the form of the movie with the image available: normalities or pathological changes of various bodies and fabrics.

The researcher who is carrying out endoscopy (see), originally chooses the subject, if necessary makes additional manipulations (washing of an object, its power tool cleaning, suction of excess amount of slime or liquid, insufflation of air, etc.) and only then, having connected directly or through a transitional ring to the endoscope a special movie camera, carries out filming of the picture observed via the endoscope usually with a speed of 24 shots of 1 sec.

Until the end of the 30th 20 century technical capabilities did not allow to connect endoscopy and cinematography in one research, edge demands considerable illumination of the subject and high sensitivity; films. The first black-and-white movies were shot via short endoscopes (the bronchoscope, the cystoscope, rektoromanoskop, etc.) since only at the same time it was possible to avoid big losses of light. Obtaining color movies through various types of endoscopes, including and fiberscopes, became possible during the use as a light source of gas-discharge lamps or filament lamps with color t ° 5000 °k.

Special indications and contraindications to To. does not exist. Any object available to an endoscopic research can become an object and for To. It is inexpedient To. for obtaining objective documentation at all types of endoscopy. Certainly use is justified To. at a research of dynamic processes (reduction of mouths of ureters, fluctuation of phonatory bands, a peristaltics of a stomach, intestines, etc.), at impossibility or undesirability of carrying out repeated researches: (laparoscopy, torakoskopiya, etc.). in diagnostically not clear cases for the subsequent numerous I viewing of the movie at the accelerated or slowed down projection with involvement of experienced consultants, for studying of staging of disease under the influence of the carried-out treatment. To. it is widely used in research, during creation of educational movies for doctors and students, for mastering skills of various diagnostic and to lay down. the manipulations made via the endoscope.

To. it can be carried out through hollow tubes which appointment to hold fabrics in the moved apart state (e.g., through rektoskop), and through optical tubes which, except keeping of fabrics, provide transfer of the image. For illumination of the subject at To. it is possible to use three types of lighting: 1) distal, at Krom the light source is located on the distal end of the endoscope and is entered into the studied cavity, body; 2) proximal, at Krom the light source is directly at the proximal end of the endoscope or is taken out in the special lighting block with forced ventilation for cooling of a powerful lamp; 3) mixed, at Krom the light source is on the proximal end of the endoscope, and the light guide is placed in a wall of the endoscope till the distal end. For distal lighting at To. usually used only bulbs of an incandescence (one - or dvukhnitevy) which at the time of shooting joined on the forced duty that created danger of a burn of fabrics. The greatest use at To. found an arrangement of a light source out of the endoscope in the special block, from to-rogo light on the fiber glass conductor it is transferred at first to proximal, and then and to distal to the ends of the endoscope (so-called cold light).

For To. most often use the modified movie cameras of broad consumption from the 8th a 16-millimeter film: «ISS-1», «Quartz», Kama, Kiev, «Krasnogorsk 16 LKM», «Camex 8», «Beaulieu Super 8», «Beaulieu R16», «Kodak of M 20 Super 8», to «Arriflex 16», etc. B these cameras before an eyepiece of the vizirny device is established adaptation in the form of a grid, a cross hairs, concentric circles, etc., located in the picture plane thanks to what focusing of an eyepiece on the picture plane and the image of an object matching it is simplified. The weight of movie cameras rather big that represents the known inconveniences at To.; for shootings it is possible to use a special support with a counterbalance which does not limit freedom of manipulations of the researcher.

On change To. television endoscopy (teleendoscopy) comes, edges allows to write down all endoscopic picture on a video tape and to look through its unlimited number of times without any after-treatment right after the end of an endoscopic research.

See also Cinematography in medicine .

Bibliography: Mankin S. N. Perspectives of use of photo and film methods in endoscopy, It is new. medical instrument making, century 2, page 39, 1968, bibliogr.; Tsepelev Yu. A. and Gorokhov L. I. Endoscopic devices for gastroenterology, M., 1976; Golcher H. Progress in cinegastro-scopy, Gastroenterology, v. 56, p. 1146, 1969; F o r n e s M. F., Johnson R. B. a. L u k a s h W. M. A new dimension in cine-endoscopy, ibid., v. 60, p. 817, 1971; Hirano M. a.o. An apparatus for ultra-high-speed cinematography of the vocal cords, Ann. Otol. (St Louis), v. 83, p. 12, 1974.

And. H. Belov, Yu. V. Struchkov.