FYDZhI — the state on the islands of the same name located in a southwest part of the Pacific Ocean. General territory of 18,3 thousand sq.km. Population of 640 thousand people (1982). The capital — Suva (apprx. 70 thousand zhit.). Administrative division — 4 districts. Ofits. language — English.
T. — constitutional monarchy as a part of the Commonwealth (it is shaven.). According to the constitution of 1970 the head of state — the English queen, the presented general-gubernato
rum. Legislature — the parliament consisting of two chambers: senate and House of Representatives.
Executive power is carried out by the cabinet headed by the prime minister.
The Fiji Islands are discovered by the Netherlands seafarer A. Tasman in 1643. The archipelago contains more than 300 islands, from to-rykh only 100 are constantly manned. The most part of islands of a volcanic origin, in a relief of large islands (Viti Levu and Vanua Levu) prevail the plateaus crossed by ridges (up to 1322 m high). The climate is tropical, oceanic wet. Southeast navetrenny slopes of mountains are covered with pluviisilvaes with valuable breeds of trees, in more droughty districts the savanna prevails.
T. — agrarian country. The basis of the economy — agriculture. Main page - x. culture — a sugarcane. Coconut palm trees, bananas, pineapples, rice, an ambercane, cassavas are grown up, rubber-bearing plants, cotton are cultivated. Fishery and livestock production is developed, cattle, pigs, horses gets divorced. The industry is presented by the enterprises for primary processing of page - x. raw materials, sawing and cement works. Gold, manganese and copper ore is extracted. Lesorazrabotka are conducted. A considerable source of the income is foreign tourism (annually the country is visited by St. 100 thousand tourists). In the country the Australian capital, controlling dominates! nearly 90% of its economy.
Indigenous people — fidzhiyets — on language and anthropological type concern to Melanesians, except them, there live Indians, Europeans, Chinese, etc. Average population density apprx. 35 people on sq.km (1982).
The natural movement of the population in 1980 (on the materials published in editions of WHO): giving rise
to the bridge — 29,4 general mortality — 6,4, a natural increase — 23,0 for 1000 of the population; child mortality — 39,5 on 1000 live-born.
In structure of incidence the main place is taken by acute respiratory and intestinal infections, infectious and parasitic diseases of skin, an injury, and also cardiovascular diseases, malignant new growths, diabetes. Tuberculosis, a leprosy, hemorrhagic fever of a dengue, a filariasis, the diseases caused by a lack of food are registered. In recent years increase in incidence of syphilis and others of veins is noted. diseases, and also the accidents connected with road and transport p roisshestviye.
The Ministry of Health directs activity of bodies and healthcare institutions. In 1981 in the country was available 27 institutions giving stationary help, on 1774 beds (27,5 on
10 thousand zhit.), W. the p. 3 of the general-tsy (on 808 beds), 15 local and rural BCs on 421 beds, 6 obstetrical institutions on 108 beds, tubercular-tsa on 185 beds, psychiatric-tsa on 170 beds, leper colony on 82 beds.
The extra hospital help was the out-patient departments of BC located in rural areas and also the centers of health care and sisterly points. Name and content of work of healthcare institutions F. not completely corresponds to the concepts accepted in the USSR (see Lecheb-no-profilakticheskiye institutions abroad).
In 1980 in F. 284 doctors worked (4,5 on 10 thousand zhit.), 12 stomatologists with university education and 36 practicing dentists without university education, 1284 nurses and midwifes, the 107th dignity. inspectors and their assistants, 44 druggists, etc.
For the purpose of providing primary medical - a dignity. the help of the population of small, hardly accessible villages takes steps for preparation a dignity. activists from locals for work on a voluntary basis (see Primary health care).
Training of doctors the medical in-t in Suva, and average medics — nursing school in carries out Lautok.
Bibliography: The sixth review of a condition of health care in the world of 1973 — 197 7, the p. 2, page 550, Geneva, 1081; World health statistics annual 1983, Geneva, 1983.
V. V. Fedorov.