(Latin fibrilla a fibril - f-Greek ag-chitektonike construction art) — the section of histology devoted to studying of fibrillar structures of nervous cells.
Existence fibrillyarn y x structures in nervous cells was known in 19 century. Nevertheless functional value of fibrilla in nervous cells demands further studying, despite a large number of the works devoted to this problem. Supporters of the reticular theory of I. A a stalemate and, A. Bete, etc. believed that excitement extends on the neurofibrilla passing from one nervous cell into another. However this hypothesis was disproved by supporters of the neural theory S. Ramone-and-Kakhalem (1888) and V. Valdeyer (1891), to-rye emphasized that neurofibrilla does not go beyond a nervous cell. As a result elekt-ronno-mikros cop iches ky researches of de Robertns (E. de Robert is, 1964), A. L. Mikeladze
(1965), H. N. Bogolepova (1975) and others between the contacting nervous cells was revealed a synaptic gap and the ravedlivost of the neural theory is confirmed to the joint venture.
In a crust, time it is possible to consider established that neurofibrilla plays an important role in implementation of function of aksonny transport (see the Neurochemistry), if about - visible, perform «skeletal» function, supporting a configuration of shoots of a cell. It is possible that structural proteins of a cell during the fixing form fibrillar structures. In cells of a neuroglia (see) — astrocytes (in a body and shoots) numerous fibrillar structures also come to light. However their structurally functional organization considerably differs from that nervous cells.
Fibrillar structures of nervous cells considerably change at pathology and sometimes serve as the indicator of initial stages of damage of nervous cells. At intoxication the amount of fibrilla in a body of nervous cells considerably increases.
Fibrillar structures in nervous cells reveal by means of methods light and a submicroscopy (see. Microscopic methods of a research. Submicroscopy). By means of a light microscope of fibrilla (see) come to light in nervous cells after impregnation of drugs silver (see Silverings methods), and also after vital staining methylene blue (see). At the same time it is revealed that in a body of a nervous cell (see) fibrillar structures (fibrilla) form thin network, and in axons of fibrilla are located with small bunches, being continuation of fibrillar network of a nervous cell.
E lektronno-mikros koniches which is - following using various modern methods of fixing, fillings and contrasting showed existence in axons of the fine fibrous structures called by it-rofilamentami. Thickness of these threads apprx. 8 — 10 nanometers. A small amount of neurofilaments is revealed also in bodies of nervous cells. In dendrites the tubules diameter apprx. 24 nanometers consisting of threadlike structures come to light, however the neurofilaments of axons and threadlike structures making tubules, apparently, have various chemical structure and functional value. At electronic microscopic examination of structure, to-rye but to the sizes would correspond to the fibrillar structures revealed svetooptichesk, are not defined. Possibly, they arise under the influence of fixing and impregnation by silver, and svetooptichesk the cooperative effect comes to light.
Bibliography: Bogolepov H. N. Ultrastruktura of synapses is normal also of pathology, page 96, M., 1975; M and to e l and d z e A.JI. Al E to t ro but mi to ro with to pi h the EU to e and ss l e d about in and - ny synapses of the central nervous system, Zhurn. neuropath, and psikhiat., t. 65, No. 12, page 1793, 1905; R a m about n at With and-j and 1 S. Neuron theory or reticular theory?
Madrid, 1954; R o b e r t i s E. D. P. Histophysiology of synapses and neurosecretion, N. Y., 1964. H. H. Bogolepov.