FIBER GLASS — the chemical inorganic fiber applied in electrotechnical, air-and ship-building, electronic, medical, chemical and other industries. On a way of production, length and outward of S. divide on shtapelny and continuous. Shtapelnoye S. receive by division of a stream of molten glass steam, air or hot gases and use it as insulating material in the form of cotton wool, rolled materials, mats and plates. The continuous S. received by drawing of the melted glass melt from the steklopryadilny unit through 200-and 400-filyerny vessels is most widespread. The received thread consisting of 200 — 400 glass fibers of tens of kilometers, arrives for textile processing; from it produce fabrics, tapes, grids and other textiles.
At continuous S.'s development on air Wednesday of a working zone various chemical components of zamaslivatel and products of their destruction having properties of allergen arrive. As a rule, influence of chemical substances is combined with the elevated temperature of air, production noise (see), allocation dust (see) and allocation of a radiant energy.
Textile processing of S. is followed by the considerable noise levels which are quite often exceeding PDU, allocation in air of a working zone of an aerosol of a zamaslivatel and dust C. A large number of manual operations in zones of service of cars, high production loading, frequent break of threads C. with formation of the waste which is a source of dust C. promote traumatization of mucous membranes and skin of working. Complex compositions of zamaslivatel, in structure to-rykh are available chemical allergens, cause emergence of the prof. of a dermatosis (see), astmoidny bronchitis (see) and bronchial asthma (see), edges is quite often combined with toksiko-allergic hepatitis (see). Disturbances of menstrual and reproductive function at workers of the main professions can be manifestations of adverse influence of a complex of production factors on a female body.
Improvement of working conditions in S.'s production is carried out by performance interconnected technological, a dignity. - tekhn. and gigabyte. actions. Radical improvement of working conditions is reached by improvement tekhnol. process in the direction of decrease in breakage of threads C.; the complex automation and sealing of the equipment excluding intake of chemical substances in a working zone; improvements of compositions of zamaslivatel (decrease in their allergenic activity). At professional selection (see) it is necessary to study in more detail the allergological and dermatological anamnesis, and in some cases to put skin tests (see) on sensitivity to zamas-livatel; at periodic medical examinations special attention should be paid on existence of precursory symptoms of allergic diseases.
Teenagers are not allowed to work with S. Women from the date of establishment of pregnancy are transferred to sites and works, free from impact on an organism of harmful production factors.
Workers are provided with overalls and individual protection equipment, for them a number of privileges and compensations in compensation is provided and at retirement.
Use of fiber glass
Use of fiber glass in medical equipment steadily increases in medical equipment hl. obr. in connection with use of a fiber optics for production of mirrors, prisms, lenses, light guides, plaits from a set of light-guide fibers. The widest range of application of fiber light guides in medicine is endoscopy (see) where S. is used for transfer of light to the examined cavities and obtaining the image. Use of fiber light guides facilitates researches, surgical interventions and medical procedures. The light radiation falling on an entrance end face of the transparent light guide extends on it thanks to total internal reflection and leaves an opposite end face. At the same time there is no heating in a zone of influence («cold light») and at the same time several times its illumination increases; creation of the field of illumination of a necessary configuration and the size at various forms of section of the light guide is possible; illumination of deep and hardly accessible cavities is reached; through a fiber light guide transfer of radiation of various spectral structure can be made by one light source (infrared, ultra-violet, etc.). Besides, fiber light guides of an elektrobezopasna.
Tools with fiber-optical elements (fiber light guides) are used practically in all fields of surgery, and in particular in micro, neuro and ophthalmosurgeries. Even such tools as tweezers, scalpels, are equipped with individual lighting — fiber light guides. Tools with fiber light guides are used for diagnosis and removal of intraocular foreign bodys, at operations for amotio of a retina, for sparing (without traumatization of fabrics) ginekol. inspections of girls.
Bibliography: Alekseev V. E., Leukin M. B. and Mikhaylov A. I. Eye tweezers with fiber light guides, Medical tekhn., No. 6, page 44, 1979; Veynberg V. B., Kuznetsova N. I. and Horoshkeeva N. S. A set of the shining tools for otorhinolaryngologists, in the same place, page 53; Twisted-yam-Vilmont M. N. The devices with use of fiber glass released by the medical industry, in the same place, page 46; A. P. Debts and P au g and y l and V. I N. A professional dermatosis from new poorly studied chemicals and their prevention, Vestn. dermas, and veins., No. 5, page 3, 1968; D r about z d the island and L. P. Ophthalmologic tools with fiber light guides, Medical tekhn., No. 6, page 43, 1979; With and z about N of t of the island of V. N. and Sorkin A. E. Laryngoscopes with fiber light guides, It is new. medical tekhn., century 2, page 21, 1976; From m and B. A., Mitrofanov G. G. and Aksenov E. I. districts. New tools for obstetrics and gynecology, Akush. and ginek., No. 6, page 53, 1980; T and d EC e N of River. A fiber optics and its use, the lane with English, M., 1975; T r I with-to about in A. A. Clinical use of ophthalmologic tools with fiber light guides, It is new. medical tekhn., century 1, page 52, 1980.
A. T. Sidenko; V. P. Busygin, K. V. Pavlova, G. G. Mitrofanova (medical tekhn.).