FERMENTAL DRUGS (Latin fermentum fermentation, fermentative beginning; a synonym enzymatic drugs) — pharmaceuticals, the main components to-rykh are enzymes.
Standard classification F. there is no item. On the main orientation of action and a wedge, to use F. the item can be divided into the following groups: 1) the drugs used at it is purulent - necrotic processes; 2) having fibrinolitic properties; 3) the improving processes of digestion.
K F. the item used at it is purulent - necrotic processes, trypsin (see), chymotrypsin (see), chemical opsin (see), Terrilytinum, ribonuclease amorphous (see Ribonucleases), deoxyribonucleases (see), a collagenase (see), Elastolytinum, etc. belong. Most of these F. items, except for Terrilytinum, receive from a pancreas of the lethal cattle.
Trypsin and chymotrypsin contain the proteolytic enzymes of the same name. Chemical opsin — mix of trypsin and chymotrypsin. These F. items hydrolyze proteins to low-molecular peptides (see Peptid-gidro-lazy). They are applied by hl. obr. for treatment of purulent wounds, trophic ulcers, decubituses, and also for fluidifying of viscous secrets at respiratory diseases (pneumonia, bronchitis, a bronchoectatic disease, etc.).
Terrilytinum is waste product of a mold fungus Aspergillus terricola. On properties and use corresponds listed above F. item of iroteoli-tichesky action.
Ribonuclease amorphous and a deoxyribonuclease have ability d e and about l and m of e r and z about in and t according to RNA and DNK*. Ribonuclease amorphous is applied generally according to the same indications, as T. and. iroteo-lytic action (trypsin, etc.). D e z about to with and r and about N at to l e and z at and with p about l z at yu t
of hl. obr. for treatment of a herpetic keratitis, adenoviral conjunctivitis and a keratitis, and also for reduction of viscosity of a phlegm at diseases of lungs and respiratory tracts.
The collagenase has proteolytic activity and splits preferential collagenic fibers. In this regard the collagenase is applied by hl. obr. for acceleration of rejection of necrotic fabrics and strup in the course of treatment of burns, frostbites, trophic ulcers and wounds.
K F. items, having fibrinolitic properties, belong fib rinolizin (see), Streptoliasum (see), an urokinase, etc. These F. items dissolve fresh blood clots and are used as fibrinolitic cure (see) for various thromboembolic diseases. Fibrinolitic and antikoagu-lyatsionny properties also Thrombolytinum has, to-ry represents a complex of trypsin and heparin (concerning 6:1). Thrombolytinum apply to dissolution of fresh blood clots (at prescription of a disease no more than 3 — 5 days).
K F. the item improving processes of digestion carry the drugs containing separate enzymes or complexes of enzymes went. - kish. path. Such F. items are, e.g., pepsin (see) and the drugs supporting him — a natural gastric juice, a gastric juice natural Ekvin (see. Gastric juice), atsidin-pepsin (see Pepsin), pepsidil and abomin (see). These drugs are appointed at insufficiency of secretory activity of glands of a mucous membrane of a stomach.
At insufficiency of excretory function of a pancreas and nek-ry other dysfunctions went. - kish. a path apply Pancreatinum (see) and a number of the combined fermental drugs, napr, panzinorm (contains extract of a mucous membrane of a stomach, extract of bile, Pancreatinum and amino acids), festal (contains a lipase, amylase, proteases and the main components of bile), digestal and pankur-exchanges.
Except the groups F mentioned above. items, in medical practice use also nek-ry other pharmaceuticals containing enzymes and possessing others pharmakol. properties. To number such F. items belong a lidaza, a ronidaza, a penicillinase (see), asparaginase (see L - Asparaginase).
Lidaza and ronidaza contain hyaluronidase (see) and are applied at treatment of contractures, hems (nosle-burn. postoperative, etc.), tendovaginitis.
Psnitsillinaza — high cleaning F. the item containing is specific a cue the enzyme splitting r-laktamnoye a ring of antibiotics of group of penicillin. This F. the item is appointed at therapy of heavy allergic reactions and the acute anaphylaxis caused by drugs of group of penicillin.
Asparaginase (L-asparaginase) is the enzyme splitting L-asparagine. This drug is used as antineoplastic means (see).
T. the item of a termolabilna therefore they should be stored at a temperature from 1 ° to 5 — 10 — - 15e (in dependence; from properties of separate drugs).
See also Enzymes.
Bibliography: M and sh to about in with to and y M. D.
Pharmaceuticals, the p. 2, with-. 48, M., 1984; R and d and l O, C. Pharmacological bases of treatment of diseases of digestive organs, page 78, M., 1976.
V. P. Lapin.