From Big Medical Encyclopedia

Throughout many centuries the religion and the state legalized civil and political lawlessness of the woman, and also her inequality with the man in the field of the family relations. This centuries-old lawlessness created in society idea of intellectual and moral inferiority of women and inability to perform it on an equal basis with the man socially useful functions. Most of women resignedly obeyed it, considering the main destination preservation of the family center, care of the husband, children. Therefore history up to 19 century does not know any examples of mass actions of women for equality and an opportunity to participate actively in public life. At the same time at a favorable social and political situation in the certain countries a nek-eye to women (hl. obr. from the well-to-do of the population) it was possible to get vocational education and even to be engaged in professional activity in various spheres of brainwork. However these separate cases had no a little significant effect on the general legal status of the woman.

Were engaged in doctoring of the woman during the entire periods of history of human society. In the period of matriarchy, holding a dominant position in a community, the woman protected life and health of the relatives. To the woman the mankind is obliged by opening to lay down. properties of many plants, emergence of the first gigabyte. the skills connected with care of children, the maintenance of the dwelling, etc. The leading role of the woman in medicine, apparently, remained also in the period of patriarchy in spite of the fact that it not only lost a dominant position in a community, but also stopped being the only carrier of medical knowledge. Obviously, the fact that during formation of cult religious representations at many people health protection is identified with a cult of the goddess-mother is connected with it (e.g., Izida's Egyptians, at Astarta's Phoenicians have [Ashtoret], at Italians Paley, Persians have Ushas, at Germans Frey, at Slavs Twisted, etc.).

The Teurgichesky and temple medicine discharges women of medical practice. Participation of women in shaman ceremonies, the «exiles» or «resettlements» procedures of demons (the angered ancestors) from an organism of the patient, the religious ceremonies accompanying in temples to lay down. and gigabyte. the procedure, was not allowed. For the woman only the duty to deliver, look after children and patients in a family remained. With allocation of medicine in an independent profession of the medical practician begins to demand special preparation, volume a cut is controlled by temples and the state. Arises medical education (see), become the privilege of men; women's medical practice either was limited, or not allowed. Originally medical schools were created at temples. In Egypt, China, India such schools existed for 20 centuries BC. In Ancient Greece along with medical schools at temples also home (family) schools at which medical knowledge, and also «secrets» of treatment and diagnosis passed from father to son to family members irrespective of a floor were created (legendary Asclepius trained in iatrotechnics not only the sons of the European fennel swallowtail and Podaliriya, but also daughters to Gigiyey and Panakey). The driver's license of free practice of the woman which got a family medical education and deprived was brought by medical knowledge to the house of the husband, treated children, relatives, neighbors. Gradually popularity of certain women grew and possibilities of their medical practice, especially in the field of obstetrics and children's diseases extended.

Solon, Klisfen, Pericles's reforms (7 — 5 centuries BC) which marked blossoming of slaveholding democracy generated new orders in a family and the state. The legal status of the woman changes. In 5 century BC there are women who are going in for poetry, philosophy and natural sciences. I. V. Eyngorn (1884) considered that in Ancient Greece in 5 century BC of the woman «made a decent part of medical estate»; they were engaged not only obstetrics and female diseases, but also surgery, had the right of independent practice, contained yatrey (see) and obstetrical houses. In Ancient Greece and later in Rome (apprx. 2 century BC) distinguished three categories of the women who are engaged in medical practice: the female doctor (mulier medica), the female doctor who is engaged obstetric ginekol. practice (obstetrix medica), and, at last, just midwife (obstetrix). Female doctors used the advantage of a nobilitet, midwifes were often invited as experts in court. In Rome all three categories of female medical estate along with male doctors had rights to address with complaints in case of unfair payment of their work. History kept names of some women which iatrotechnics or works on medicine became widely known in Ancient Greece and Rome. I. V. Eyngorn, Lipinskaya (M. of Lipinska, 1930) give St. 20 names of female doctors in Greece and Rome, and also report about existence of a large number of gravestone monuments to women on which texts testify to their occupations medical or obstetric practice. Pythagoras Feon's wife (6 century BC) was the author of works on medicine, Pythagoras's daughters — Ezara and Arignote were engaged in medical practice; Pythagoras Periktione's schoolgirl (6 — 5 centuries BC) — the author of the composition on a structure of a female body («About harmony women's»). Pericles Aspasiya's wife (sort. in 470) graduated from medical school in Miletus, went in for philosophy, policy and medicine much. The remained fragments from her compositions on obstetrics and gynecology demonstrate very extensive knowledge in a wedge, medicine. The daughter and Aristipp Kirensky's schoolgirl — Aretha (4 century BC) along with compositions on philosophy, natural sciences and agriculture wrote the work «About Art to Look After Children and Old Men». Introduction to medical practice of a number of medicinal plants is attributed to Artemisia (apprx. 350 BC). Elefantida (2 — 1 centuries BC) practiced in area of female and skin diseases; K. Galen referred to its works.

In 1 century AD civil legal capacity of women is considerably limited; the so-called Velleyansky published in 46 senatus-konsulat deprives the woman even of the right of the obligation and the guarantee. This act as a part of the Roman right passed into the European legislation. Apparently, this law considerably limited the rights of women and in the field of medical practice since if in 1 century AD names of female doctors are still known (e.g., fragments from Afroda's compositions on the general therapy, Lapda — on skin diseases, Fabulla — on private pathology, therapy and pharmacology, Leopards — on surgery remained), then further within nearly 10 centuries about profession of a physician of women there are only single and insufficiently confirmed references (e.g., Silvia Victoria, 4 century AD).

The Christian church looked at the woman as on a being low, sinful and dangerous, One of cathedrals even considered a question whether it is possible to carry the woman to reasonable beings and whether it has soul. Receiving education by the woman and the more so her participation in public work was considered by «fathers of church» as «a remnant of barbarity» which «it is a shame and to see indecent». Naturally, the restrictions ordered by church were observed less strictly by representatives of exclusive classes where women could get rather broad education, inherit property of close relatives and even to have the rights of a syuzerenstvo. However any professional activity of women up to the 11th century is unknown. At the same time transition of medicine to monasteries did not mean full discharge of women from medical activity. In convents there was a medical aid. M. O. Pruzhanskaya (1883) reports that in Western Europe nuns accepted patients, treated them and even did small operations. The weight of evidence suggests that in convents there were medical schools at which, as well as at schools at monasteries, antique traditions remained. In any case it is known that in convents only the narrow circle of nuns was engaged in rendering medical aid. The generalizing compositions which are also created in convents reminding manuals are known (e.g., Materia physica written in the 11th century by the mother superior of one of it. monasteries Gildegarda Bingenska).

In 11 — 18 centuries there were women who were engaged in secular medical practice 14 of which undoubtedly got university medical education. Trotula's works, Abela (Trotula di Riggiero, Abella, And century) and the Calends (S. of Calenda, 14 century) teaching in Salerno, Gvarna (R. Guarna, 12 century), Margarita and Merkuriadis (Margarita, Mercuriadis, 15 century), the un-t which finished Salerno, Bukki remained (D. Bucca, 15 century) and Mazzolini (A. Mazzolini, 18 century), occupying medical departments un-that in Bologna, and also the women who received in 18 and the beginning of 19 century doctor's diplomas of high fur boots in Bologna, Florence, Halle, the Würzburg, Goettingen and Gissen. M. O. Pruzhanskaya, Lipinskaya, Zibold (To. Siebold), etc. consider that the number of the women who received in 11 — 13 centuries medical diplomas in Salerno was more, but their names and compositions did not remain. Heather (H. Haeser, 1839) reports that during this period in Salerno «many women studied medicine and existed practice» and that «many of them acted as professors and writers and were highly esteemed». According to Dzheks-Blek (S. Jex-Black, 1873), in the second half of 18 century «many women from Italy, connecting conditions of family life to studying of science, began to come to high fur boots of Italy what the last never refused to them». This instruction, however, is submitted a little categorical and does not find sufficient confirmation in other sources though it is possible to assume that S. Dzheks-Blek means not students, but the auditors visiting high fur boots not for obtaining the diploma and the follow-up professional activity, and with the general education purpose.

M. Lipinskaya gives documentary materials that in 13 — 15 centuries in France, Germany, to England and Poland authorities allowed women's medical practice and for this purpose university education was not always required. During this period for the right of medical practice in the cities it was granted permission after examination of the special commission of the doctors who are in public service. The persons studying medicine at monasteries or who worked several years as the pupil for the experienced doctor who got permission to have pupils from the authorities were usually allowed to take examinations. Most of female doctors whom Lipinskaya mentions got a medical education at such «craft schools».

The church and high fur boots interfered with occupation of women medical practice. In 1220. Parisian medical f-t to which the royal charter assigned consideration of all controversial issues on medicine prohibited medical practice to all who do not belong to f-that. But this prohibition long time was not observed, apparently, because Parisian medical f-t of the doctors suitable for practice, did not prepare, and the need for doctors affected the city authorities stronger than faculty prohibition. So, Shero (A. Chereau, 1873) reports that 8 women and 29 men paying a tax for conducting medical practice are mentioned in podatny books of Paris for 1290 — 1292. There are bases to consider that in France in 13 — 14 centuries female doctors were even allowed to have pupils. E.g., in Marseille archive the obligation of the female doctor «is revealed to feed and train the pupil in medicine and physics within 7 months provided that it will be it in everything to obey»; the document is dated on August 28, 1326. In 1346. Parisian medical f-t addressed the father with the petition for prohibition to women to be engaged in medical practice. In the late fifties are 14 century old under the influence of numerous requests of male doctors and members Parisian medical f-that — with extremely persistent requirements of prohibition to women medical, especially surgical, practicians one of the largest fr. surgeons Guy de Chauliac acted is the king Ioann Dobry prohibited women medical practice in France. This edikt was carried out far not everywhere and though in Paris women's medical practice was pursued, references of female doctors in France meet up to 15 century inclusive. Apparently, the centenary war, on the one hand, which weakened the royalty in France, and with another — caused the increased demand for doctors was the cause of it. The first documentary mentioning of women's medical practice in Germany belongs to 1288. In archives of Frankfurt am Main for 1389 — 1497 there are references of 15 female doctors; 3 of them practiced by eye diseases. In Poland the female doctor practicing in 1278 is known; about women's medical practice there are also later references. Apparently, training of women in doctoring and providing in the cities of the right of independent medical practice in 12 — 15 centuries was extended by it in the states of Central Europe. Since the end of 15 century, perhaps as a result of measures of inquisition, it is possible in connection with strengthening of influence of high fur boots, the number of female doctors considerably decreases, and in 16 — 18 centuries only isolated cases of women's medical practice meet.

Unlike medical, obstetric practice of women not only was not prohibited, but was even encouraged since male doctors, owing to the dominating customs, were invited to women in labor only in cases of heavy pathology. Up to emergence in 18 century of obstetric schools of the midwife studied at the companions on craft and then took examination for the right of independent practice of the special commission consisting of several doctors who were in public service; the same commission exercised supervision of activity is free the practicing doctors, surgeons, druggists and midwifes. Thus, in Europe the legal status of midwifes almost did not differ from a legal status of doctors, they had the right of free practice and were even invited as experts in court, supported obstetric schools, wrote and published compositions and the guides to obstetrics which, according to the famous historian of obstetrics Zibold, were much more successful and the grants written by male doctors used big recognition at contemporaries, than. The volume of the practical activities which were quite often going beyond obstetrics and need to conduct considerable pedagogical work did many midwifes very competent of questions of medicine in general. Harless and Zibold report that the Parisian midwifes were invited in un-t for training with doctors and students. Works of the most outstanding midwifes were repeatedly republished.

Coming to power of the bourgeoisie and withdrawal pains of feudal orders could not but affect position of the woman in society. First of all development of capitalist production changed position of the woman in system of public division of labor — cheap factory goods forced out homespun products of the female housewife, having nullified her traditional economic role in family unit. On the other hand, the capitalist factory opened gate for the working woman, willingly using cheaper female labor. Arrival of the woman to the sphere of production gave it not only relative material independence, but also led to the known revolution in the family relations since marriage for the working woman stopped being the only form of ensuring its material existence.

Radical changes happen also in a bourgeois family. «The bourgeoisie broke their touching and sentimental cover from the family relations and reduced them to purely monetary relations» (K. Marx and F. Engels, SOBR. soch., prod. the 2nd, t. 4, page 427). Where monetary calculation did not get satisfactory permission, the bourgeois woman was left in the basket of family life. Growth of such forced celibacy raised a question of independent earnings for the bourgeois woman. This question became one of major factors of the bourgeois women's movement which arose in 19 century which proclaimed fight for equality of women not only in the field of the family relations but also in all areas of public and cultural life.

The bourgeois system showed considerable demand for brainwork — work of teachers, doctors, lawyers, journalists, etc. This demand could not be completely met at the expense of men, and it is natural that a great number of the women of a bourgeois origin who did not have an opportunity to execute the traditional appointment within a family aimed at these professions guaranteeing them not only material independence, but also preservation of a class association and a way of life. But inequality in the field of education got in the way of implementation of these aspirations. Therefore, unlike the proletarian women's movement which arose afterwards exposing improvement of working conditions, providing compensation, equal with the man, etc. as the main requirements, fight for equality in the field of education became one of the leading slogans of bourgeois women's movement.

Thus, problem of the highest. m of the lake as a part of the general fight for equality of women got big social and political sounding in the second half of 19 century. Generated by naturally developed social and economic situation, it stopped being a problem of individuals whose abilities and public temperament did not find satisfaction in traditional family purpose. Therefore the bourgeois states almost at the same time undertake reforms of the general female secondary education and begin to allow women to the highest. m of the lake, or allowing their inclusion in high fur boots, or creating special highest women's medical educational institutions.

Problem of the highest. m of the lake for the first time began to decide in the USA. Already in the first quarter of 19 century in the State of Ohio colleges (the general average educational institutions) into whom coeducation was entered were created. However this measure did not resolve an issue of reception of women in higher educational institutions. It is known that the girls who left such colleges in 1835 were not accepted in Harvard by un-t. Further, until the end of the 60th, in high fur boots of the USA women were not accepted. Persistent failure of high fur boots to accept women, formally explained fiziol, features of a female body, in connection with to-rymi the woman is not able to maintain «an intellectual overstrain», and also danger of falling of morality in higher educational institutions, led only to an aggravation of fight for equality in education. Already not only women, but also many men, it is preferential from the circle of Quakers, actively joined in this fight. And special sharpness was gained by fight for the highest. m of the lake that, apparently, was connected also with legislative restriction in 20 — the 30th of the women's obstetric practice which was in the USA, as well as in Europe, traditional female specialty.

The system of training of doctors in the USA considerably differed from the European. It included compulsory preliminary practical education of 2 — 3 years with the mentor (the practicing doctor), with the subsequent preferential lecture occupations in medical college during 2 — 3 semester. In the mid-forties of 10 women who had the finished secondary education and completed a course of preliminary practical training tried to come to medical colleges. However only one of them, Blekuell (E. Black-well), was admitted to the highest medical educational institution. In 1849 she left the Geneva medical college of the State of New York (Geneva medical College in New-York), having become the USA first female doctor. In the subsequent till 1880. The Geneva medical college of women did not accept.

As the question of reception of women in high fur boots and medical colleges was not solved, there was an idea about creation of special medical college for women. And March, 1850 at the initiative of the Philadelphian dealer W. Mullen and the doctor D. Longshore the legislative assembly of the State of Pennsylvania allowed opening of the Pennsylvanian women's medical college (The Female Medical College in Pennsylvania) with the providing which ended its rights of independent medical practice. Entrance in the college required the finished secondary education, biennial preliminary training with the mentor and ability «to know literary English». Duration of a course was determined in 4 months, the general duration of training of 14 months. Occupations in college began on October 12, 1850, in college 40 students were accepted, 8 of which gathered a floorto learn degree of the doctor of medicine. In December, 1851 the first release of college took place. Delivery of the first doctor's diplomas to women caused a rough sea among medical students, and for suppression of possible disorders the mayor of Philadelphia was forced to expose before the building where there took place the ceremony of delivery of diplomas, a protecting cordon from 50 police officers. On December 30, 1851 doctor's diplomas were handed S. Ellis, A. Hunt, G. Longshore (And. Longshore), G. Longshore, F. Mitchell, Preston (And. Preston), Soin (M. Sawin), Uey (Ph. Way).

The first women's medical college a long time worked in the conditions of isolation. The pennsylvanian medical association prohibited the members any cooperation with women's medical college, students were not allowed for a practical training in one to lay down. establishment. Only in 1861 it was succeeded to rent the placement for women's hospital on 5 beds, and for involvement of patients treatment, including surgical, was free. In 1868 visit of the general a wedge, classes in internal diseases in the Philadelphian hospital was authorized to students. Permission to visit of classes in the general surgery in the Pennsylvanian hospital (1869) was soon cancelled. Only in 1875 students of college had an opportunity to attend a wedge, classes in hospitals of Philadelphia. Thus, nearly 25 years the college was almost deprived a wedge, bases that could not but affect quality of training of his graduates. Nevertheless popularity of college quickly grew. The aspiration of women to get the higher medical education was so big that from 1850 to 1895 in the USA 18 more women's medical colleges were open. In 1866 reception of women on medical f-t Michigan un-that, in 1883 — on medical f-t un-that John Gopkins began, since 1918 women could come to all high fur boots of the USA. Most women's medical schools did not sustain the competition to high fur boots and either were closed, or combined with the corresponding high fur boots. By 1910 from among special highest women's medical educational institutions only the Pennsylvanian women's medical college remained, in Krom only since 1969 coeducation began. In 129 years of existence the Pennsylvanian women's medical college trained 3072 female doctors.

In Europe problem Zh. m of the lake decided preferential by the admission of women in the existing high fur boots. At the same time in the countries where in system of public administration remnants of feudalism remained (the considerable power belonged to the monarch, the leading role in state bodies was played by the land aristocracy) or influence of church on domestic policy, recognition for women of the rights for education, equal with the man, encountered the largest resistance. Such situation was observed in Austria-Hungary, Germany, and also Bulgaria, Spain and Portugal where reception of women in high fur boots began only in the 20th 20 century.

The first European the un-volume, begun systematic reception of women, was Zurich: in 1864 on medical f-t N. P. Suslova was enlisted. University council authorized transfer of students, referring to absence in the charter un-that direct prohibition to accept women, and by the time of legislative permission of reception of women in the Swiss high fur boots on equal terms with men (1873) 110 students studied for medical f-those Zurich un-that. And. G. Arkhangelskaya (1883) and Page A. Jacobi (1858), referring to data of official statistics Zurich un-that, report that in 1864 — 1873 among students medical f-that the Russian women prevailed (in 1870 — 1871 — 21 of 24, 1871 — 1872 — 54 of 63, in 1872 — 1873 — 96 of 110). In 1873 the imperial government, referring a pas opening of female medical courses («a course for education of scientific midwifes at Imperial St. Petersburg medicochirurgical academy»), prohibited the Russian women training in medicine in foreign high fur boots. Before the first release of female medical courses (1878) in Zurich doctors of medicine of 7 Russian women were entitled: N. P. Suslova (1867), M. A. Bokov (Obrucheva-Bokova, Sechenov-Bokov, 1871), M. O. Pruzhanskaya (1873), P. I. Yakovlev (Glushanovskaya-Yakovlev, 1873), A. I. Kleiman (1874), Yu. A. Sinclair (1876), A. N. Tomashevskaya (1877). Further the Russian women continued to study in the Swiss high fur boots (e.g., in 1880 the medical f-t Bern un-that were finished by N. O. Ziber-Shumova and R. S. Svetlovskaya), but their such large number as at the beginning of the 70th, was not any more.

In France reception of women on medical f-t Parisian un-that began in 1868, the first student was Putnam (M. Putnam) from the USA, become afterwards professor of neurology and the president of section of neurology of Academy in New York (1893). In the 70th of women accepted all fr. high fur boots. The first 10 years the number of students in fr. high fur boots was insignificant. According to 3. I. Okunkova, by 1876 medical f-t Parisian un-that ended 3 women, 3 women took examination for a rank of the doctor of medicine (from them 2 Russians — E. A. Goncharova and 3. I. Okunkova), 16 students, including 7 Russians studied. In 1898 from 28,8 thousand students of fr. high fur boots there were 871 women, from them 399 studied medicine. From 1910 to the 70th 20 century the number of the women studying for a medical f-takh of fr. high fur boots hesitates from 12 to 20%. Medical f-you high fur boots of Sweden, Holland and Norway accept women since 1870, Denmark — since 1875, Belgium — since 1876.

In Great Britain in 1869 council Edinburgh un-that satisfied the petition of group of 8 women, having allowed them to attend classes on medical f-those on condition of training, separate with men. However many teachers, and especially students opposed this decision, and several months later the decision of university council was cancelled by court. Considering experience of women of the USA, English women made attempt to create women's medical schools: in 1869 such school would be organized at London for the poor by the sisters who were returned from the USA Blekuell. However the termination of this school did not grant the right for medical practice; for obtaining the diploma ended it were forced to address or in about-in druggists (the only thing medical about-in in England, the having right to issue medical diplomas), or in foreign high fur boots. In 1874 Dzheks-Blek opened the second women's medical school in London (London school of medicine for women). At the same time women did not stop addressing to parliament with requirements to legislatively establish the right of women for the higher education. In 1876 the parliament issued the law providing reception of women in high fur boots of England on an equal basis with men. In 1877 the medical college Dublin un-that declared reception of women and recognition of the London medical school for women at London un-those, reception of women began in 1878; The Oxford and Cambridge high fur boots began to accept women since 1881; The right to accept women was granted to the Scottish high fur boots in 1892. In English colonies (Australia, India, Canada, New Zealand) reception of women in high fur boots was allowed in 1870, i.e. earlier, than in the mother country.

In Austria-Hungary the issue of the higher education of women was resolved only by the beginning of 20 century. Distinction of training programs in men's and women's lyceums was the formal cause for prohibition to accept women in high fur boots. Because of it girls upon termination of lyceums were not allowed to take examinations for degree of the bachelor, existence a cut was an indispensable condition for inclusion in un-t. The first women's lyceum with the program equivalent to men's, was open in Vienna in 1892. In 1891 medical practice, but only in the territory of the occupied Bosnia was allowed the women who ended foreign high fur boots for medical service of women of Mohammedan religion. Pole L. Krajewska who ended medical f-t Zurich un-that was the first woman who received in 1893 degree of the doctor of medicine in Vienna un-those. Legislatively inclusion in high fur boots of Austria-Hungary the women having degree of the bachelor was allowed in 1897. However actually reception of women on medical f-you began since 1900, after the publication of the special resolution specifying conditions of training of women at a medical f-takh.

In Germany longer, than in other states of Central Europe, women were not allowed not only to secondary education, university, but also equal with men. During quarter of the century (1865 — 1890) 5 women's public organizations which main objective was a fight for equality in the field of education were organized. In the 80th the union «Female benefit» at the expense of means of private charity organized the so-called «real courses» for women transformed in 1891 — 1893 to female gymnasiums. However diplomas of these gymnasiums till 1908 did not admit high fur boots. Since 1891 high fur boots of Germany (the first — Heidelberg) allowed women visit as auditors, only in 1908 the women who finished gymnasiums were allowed to occupations as students.

In Russia question of the highest. the m of the lake began to be solved in the second half of 19 century under the influence of a revolutionary situation 50 — the 60th. An industrial revolution 30 — the 40th and the decomposition of the feudal relations which dragged on thanks to the military and police despotism established in the country for several decades caused the deep crisis which was especially obviously found after defeat in the Crimean war. The revolutionary fire, a flame to-rogo gradually covered the peasantry, national suburbs, the raznochinny intellectuals, students, exerted huge impact on development of public consciousness and defined an orientation of social movement of various layers of Russian about-va. Requirements of political reforms and democratization of public life are distributed also in the environment of the nobility, including among the persons close to a throne. In general Russian the period presented extremely motley picture of the various political groups (from revolutionary democrats to very moderate liberal directions) pursuing various social and political aims to this, and ideological stratification was considerable even in the most revolutionary circle of the raznochinny intellectuals. In these conditions in government circles in 1856 — 1857 projects of reforms which implementation could weaken general discontent begin to be discussed, meet requirements of the most moderate groups and by that to liquidate danger «revolutions from below»

. In this most difficult situation of fight and expectation of democratic changes in Russia women's movement arose, obtaining the civil rights, equal with the man, and first of all the right for education was a main objective to-rogo. Unlike women of Western Europe and the USA, the Russian women did not impose any specific political requirements. This feature of women's movement in Russia, apparently, is connected with the fact that in the conditions of the Russian autocracy all estates (not excepting the highest nobility) were equally politically deprived of civil rights, and in this respect men had practically no advantages before women. In Russia there were no large women's organizations, and the women who followed a way of political struggle usually entered the same political organizations, as men, dividing with them not only the program and methods of controlling, but also a full measure of responsibility for the actions. Revolutionary democrats connected fight for. m of the lake with fight for equality of women; N. G. Chernyshevsky, N. A. Dobrolyubov, D. I. Pisarev, M. L. Mikhaylov, and also the largest representatives of the Russian medical science I. M. Sechenov, S. P. Botkin, V. L were his advocates. Gruber, etc.

One of the first investigations of the political situation created in the country was reform of female education: On March 5, 1856 the solution «about the device was... in the provincial cities of the women's schools which are brought closer at the rate to gymnasiums...». The first such school was open in April, 1858 in St. Petersburg. In 1860 the solution to call these schools female gymnasiums was. The issue from above was so resolved. And at this time there were already hundreds of women whom professions of the teacher of elementary school, the midwife or the sister of mercy could not satisfy; their requests were wider and more courageous. The greatest number of women aimed at a profession of the doctor. Question of the highest. the m of the lake in Russia was solved in total apprx. 40 years. Establishment of «a course for scientific midwifes» at the St. Petersburg medicochirurgical academy whose opening was preceded by long fight was an important stage of its history.

In 1860 — 1861 in St. Petersburg un-those and Medicochirurgical academy appeared the first listeners (N. I. Korsini, A. P. Blyummer, etc.). In March, 1861 the house teacher L. Ozhigina submitted the application in Kharkiv to un-t about permission to listen to lectures on medical f-those for receiving afterwards a doctor rank. Neither council un-that, nor the trustee of the educational district did not make the final decision. The minister of education, «believing that intentions of the maiden Ozhigina to devote itself to studying of medicine deserve special attention and that no, the basis not to encourage desire of the woman to be engaged in doctoring...», reported the application on Alexander II who charged to the Main board of school to consider a question of a possibility of training of women in high fur boots in general. Having received previously favorable decision of Medical council (as supreme advisory medical body of the empire), on August 13, 1861 the minister of education directed L. Ozhigina's application to destination. The main board of schools sent inquiries to all high fur boots of Russia: it was offered to report opinion of council un-that about an opportunity and conditions of the admission of women to occupations, joint with male students, in high fur boots. St. Petersburg, Vladimir (Kiev), the Kazan and Kharkiv high fur boots were positive to reception of women in high fur boots; Moscow and Derptsky — stated objections. Further consideration of a question of a possibility of reception of women in high fur boots was transferred to the commission working on drawing up the new university charter. To the decision of the commission some high fur boots (Kazan, Kiev, Kharkiv), using lack of direct prohibition, allowed women visit of lectures. Moreover, in 1862 M. A. Obrucheva-Bokova and N. P. Suslova were admitted to Medicochirurgical academy.

In the commission on consideration of the new university charter opinions were shared: some members of the commission were inclined to resolve an issue positively, but the majority, referring to insufficiently thorough training of women for university education and possible «moral effects» of coeducation, objected. Alexander II agreed with opinion of the majority. In 1863 the new university charter was approved, and the way to women in high fur boots was closed. M. A. 06-rucheva-Bokova and N. P. Suslova were deducted from Medicochirurgical academy. However this decision question of the highest. the m of the lake was not removed from the agenda. In the fall of 1864 the Minister of War D. A. Milyutin sent to the Minister of Internal Affairs the offer on extension of training programs in obstetrical in-ta (obstetric schools). The Minister of War considered that the «midwives» trained according to such expanded programmes will serve as a reserve for army and in case of war will be able (at least partially) to replace men at doctor positions. Medical council where by order of the Minister of Internal Affairs D. A. Milyutin's inquiry was sent, found on January 26, 1865 that «strengthening of education of midwives will not be able to help this purpose, it would be necessary to turn it into women's medical faculties». Approving the decision of Medical council, the Minister of Internal Affairs also emphasized that extension of the program of training of midwives is represented to it insufficient that, «if private dependence, even at some government aid, the institute especially for women could be founded, from Medical council to that obstacles would not meet». In 1867 N. I. Kozlov sent to the minister of education of D. A. To Tolstoy the project of creation of the mixed highest women's medical educational institution — female medical courses, but the project was rejected.

At the same time the aspiration of women to the higher education amplified, the materials devoted to equality of women and female education in particular did not descend from pages of many newspapers and magazines. At the end of 1869 at the building Kharkiv un-that the minister of education was handed the collective address behind 165 signatures, in Krom the request for transformation sredn containedtheir educational institutions for women in real with the program adapted for a university course and about the admission of women in the existing high fur boots. The request was rejected. The essence of the arguments adduced at the same time in the press was as follows. Before leading the conversation on the higher female education, it is necessary to take care of elementary education for women, improvement to-rogo «the main and next care of the Ministry of National education». For the nation-wide purposes of «need» for the higher education of women «it is not seen»; besides, the number of the female persons who are seriously aiming at the higher education and are enough prepared for it, extremely restrictedly. In this regard the government cannot assume «neither cares, nor costs» for the organization of special female higher educational institutions, though does not interfere with their device on the basis of a private initiative. Reception of women in the existing high fur boots, though will not demand any additional expenses, is impossible since it threatens to break gravity of university teaching, and also «to lower the intellectual and moral level of these higher educational institutions».

In January, 1870 three members of Medical council — the chief military health inspector N. I. Kozlov, professors N. F. Zdekauyer and A. Ya. Krassovsky presented the note characterizing a condition of obstetric care in the country and level of training of «midwives». For improvement of obstetric care in the country authors of a note suggested to establish two obstetric degrees in Russia: «midwives» with training in volume of the existing obstetrical in-t and «the scientific midwife» with the general medical education. The curriculum and the program for the organization of «a course for scientific midwifes», separate of students, at Medicochirurgical academy was offered and medical f-takh high fur boots with the term of training 4 years. Medical council approved on April 7, 1870 these recommendations and sent them for the final decision to the minister of national education and the Minister of War as the Medicochirurgical academy was under authority of the military of department. The leading professors of academy S. P. Botkin, A. P. Borodin, I. M. Baliysky, K. A. Raukhfus, I. M. Sechenov, V. M. Tarkovsky supported the decision of Medical council, and the Minister of War agreed to the organization at Medicochirurgical academy of «a course for education of scientific midwifes» if this degree is established legislatively. The minister of national education requested opinion of high fur boots. Councils medical f-tov Derptsky, Moscow, Kharkiv, Kazan and Kiev high fur boots reported that, in their opinion, women can be assumed to occupations on a medical f-takh of high fur boots in accordance with general practice with men that special programs and degree of «the scientific midwife» are superfluous. The women who came to un-t in accordance with general practice shall study within 5 years and be entitled the doctor. Considering unanimously support of the highest. m of the lake high fur boots, the minister of national education, with nek-ry reservations, recognized possible creation of «courses for education of scientific midwifes», but them at high fur boots prohibited the organization.

On May 6, 1872 according to the report of the Minister of War Alexander II allowed «in the form of experience establishment at Medicochirurgical academy of a female course for education of scientific midwifes». On Alexander II's decision the great influence was exerted by a note of the chief of gendarmes, in a cut, in particular, it was pointed out desirability of derivation of the Russian women from training in foreign high fur boots where «they are taken the alien socialist ideas». Besides, without having access to systematically organized occupations, women «find secret access» in high fur boots where «spend forces for a sterile game in science, identifying this forbidden science with the social problems which were vaguely reaching their hearing and enter communication with as unripe as they, students, including them heralds of some new beginnings». Therefore, according to the chief of gendarmes, the question of female education, «a new public question, excited propaganda in the known circles of society and in literature», deserves special attention of the government. On July 10, 1872 the order on military department establishing the four-year term of training and «the schedule of objects of teaching on a course» followed. No state allocations for the maintenance of a course were established, they existed at the expense of private donations and the tuition fee brought by listeners.

Training at a course began with a winter semester of 1872 — 1873. Despite the set limit of annual inclusion in 70 people, in the first year of training the number of listeners made 89 people G. M. Gertsenstein (1880) provides data on the number of reception on a course in 1872 — 1879 (tab. 1), testimonial that the set limit of reception was not observed also in the next years.

The educational qualification of the women accepted on a course was rather high. P. P. Sushchinsky (1883) reports that from total number of the women studying at a course, 52,4% finished a gymnasium, 27,1% — a gymnasium with a pedagogical class, 10,9% — women's schools and 9,6% women's in-you.

Teaching on a course was organized on a sample of Medicochirurgical academy. Unlike medical colleges in the USA and the London medical schools for women, much attention was paid to occupations in clinics. Despite low, in comparison with high fur boots, payment, many leading professors of Medicochirurgical academy agreed to teach on a course. Among them there were A. P. Borodin, A. P. Dobroslavin, I.P. Ivanovsky, A. Ya. Krassovsky, M. D. Lavdovsky, K. A. Raukhfus, K. K. Reyer, N. V. Sklifosovsky, B. M. Tarnovsky, etc. In 1876 according to N. I report. Kozlova on a course five years' training was established, and classes began to be given at the Nikolaev military hospital. From now on «the course for education of scientific midwifes» turns into female medical courses. In 1878 the first release of courses took place, graduates «were put on trial, identical with students, for the right of medical practice». Despite the lack of special permission, ended the rank of the doctor was given. Further attempts to deprive of graduates of the right of the general medical practice were made. On January 4, 1883 according to the report of the minister of national education «the highest command» was declared assignment to the female persons who stopped female medical courses, ranks of «the scientific midwife» to hold with addition of permission to the right of «scientific midwifes» positions in female gymnasiums, boards, schools, women's charitable institutions etc. with the right to carry the sign «female doctor». For cancellation of this decision female doctors and teachers of courses made the application on «the highest name»; On February 18, 1883 the doctor rank for graduates of female medical courses was recovered.

In 1881 instead of the retired D. A. Milyutin the post of the Minister of War was held by P. S. Vannovsky who considered «impossible further existence at military department of women's educational institution». Courses are decided either to be abolished, or to transfer to the jurisdiction of other ministries. However neither the Ministry of Public Education, nor the Ministry of Internal Affairs, the medical department was under authority to-rogo, did not agree to accept female medical courses in the maintaining. On August 5, 1882 reception on courses was stopped. The accepted listeners were given an opportunity to end a full course of training. The appeal of teachers to the St. Petersburg City Council with a request was the last attempt to keep courses to accept courses in maintaining the municipal government. The Duma agreed under a condition, «if the maintenance of courses does not demand allocations of city treasury more than 15 thousand rubles». However this resolution of the Duma was not approved «in view of the fact that the higher medical education as a nation-wide question, is not under authority City Council». Occupations on courses were stopped in 1887. During the existence female medical courses trained over 600 doctors, among them there were famous figures of territorial medicine (A. G. Arkhangelskaya, A. N. Shabanova, the cousin V. I. Lenina is A. I. Veretennikova, etc.), the first Russian female professors (A. A. Krasusskaya, K. P. Ulezko-Stroganova). Practical work of graduates of female medical courses got them great respect, especially in zemstvoes, to-rymi 35 grants to listeners of courses were appointed. According to P. P. Sushchinsky, St. 50% of graduates of courses worked in zemstvoes, clinics, city and provincial-tsakh.

For the further solution of a question of destiny. the m of the lake in Russia under pressure of the public, according to the petition of scientific medical congresses, zemstvoes etc. organized the special commission, a cut it was entrusted to present to the State Council the project about creation women's medical in-that. The State Council approved the project submitted by the commission only in 1891 with the reservation that opening in-that followed only after by private donations the sum sufficient for ensuring its existence is collected. «The royal statement» of the provision about Women's medical in-those followed on July 1, 1895. Women's medical in-t (see. Leningrad 1st medical institute ) it was open in St. Petersburg on September 14, 1897, the prof. V. K. Anrep was his first director. In spite of the fact that professors St. Petersburg un-that and Army medical college were involved in teaching in in-those (including. A.S. Dogel, D. K. Zabolotny, S. S. Salazkin, etc.), formally was delivered to in-t below a medical f-tov of high fur boots. Ended it were entitled the female doctor and could hold medical positions only in women's departments to lay down. institutions, had no right for independent judicial examination, were not allowed to a competition of degree of the doctor of medicine owing to what it closed access to professorate. Only in 1904 by in-t it was accepted in maintaining the ministry of national education, and the rights of students medical f-tov were extended to listeners: obtaining the doctor diploma and right for a scientific degree competition.

Ying t attracted a large number of listeners. In 1897 on its 1st course 188 people from whom the full course was finished 112 in 1902 were accepted. In 1904 in in-those 365 listeners, in 1913 — 1914 — 1256 studied.

The revolutionary situation of 1905 — 1907 exerted impact on a condition of the highest. m of the lake. In 1905 — 1906 women were accepted in number of students by almost all high fur boots of Russia and only in 1907 the order of the minister of education about expel of women from high fur boots followed. During the same period new women's medical educational institutions opened, and all of them were given the statute equal with a medical f-tami of high fur boots at once.

In 1906 the medical f-t at the High female courses in Moscow opens (see. Moscow 2nd medical institute ). As a part of professors medical f-that there were D. N. Zyornov, A. B. Fokht, V. S. Gulevich, N. D. Zelinsky, P. V. Tsiklinskaya, A. N. Reformatsky, P. A. Minakov, L. S. Minor, H. N. Bazhenov, L. S. Sverzhevsky, M. N. Shaternikov, A. A. Kisel, M. I. Averbakh, L. A. Tarasevich, A. P. Langova. In 1906 on the 1st course 150 listeners were accepted. Before Great October socialist revolution of medical f-t of the High female courses in Moscow let out 1060 female doctors. Except the listed educational institutions, training of female doctors was carried out on a medical f-takh of the High female courses in Kiev (since 1907) and Odessa (since 1906), Kharkiv women's medical in-those (since 1910).

Development of the highest. led m of the lake in Russia to what in 1913 among the practicing doctors (excepting tooth, and also the doctors who are engaged in scientific and pedagogical activity) 10% made women.

Data on official position of the Russian female doctors in 1877, according to D. I. Toropov are provided in tab. 2 (1913).

After Great October socialist revolution of the woman in the USSR acquired the equal rights with men in all areas of political and cultural life. In 1918 the highest women's medical educational institutions were transformed to educational institutions for coeducation or are combined with a medical f-tami of the corresponding high fur boots; women began to be accepted in all higher educational institutions of the country. In the 70th 20 century women possess the leading place in many thousands army of the Soviet doctors.

See also Health care workforce , Medical education .

The table 1 NUMBER of RECEPTION of LISTENERS ON «the COURSE FOR EDUCATION of SCIENTIFIC MIDWIFES» from 1872 to 1879 (according to G. M. Gertsenstein, 1880)

Table 2. OFFICIAL POSITION of the FEMALE DOCTORS In 1877-1912 (according to D. I. Toropov, 1913)

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A. M. Grindings.