FEELING — subjective reflection of separate properties of the objects and phenomena which are directly influencing sense bodys.
Obshchebiol. value O. consists that it, being reflection of properties of the objects (and the phenomena) influencing directly sense bodys provides orientation of an organism in the environment. The lake — a component of any act of behavior of animals and activity of the person. With its help regulation of the performed movements and operations is carried out, their adequacy to environmental conditions is provided.
In the course of evolution of live organisms of O. develops on the basis of property irritability (see) — the elementary, inherent in all live abilities to answer with a certain form of reaction to various influences. With emergence of a nervous system property of irritability appears in more specific form — excitabilities (see), connected with the differentiated forms of reaction of an animal. In development and complications of a nervous system arise the special bodies of feelings adapted for reflection of certain types of energy and to their transformation to the corresponding
O. U of the person O. is elementary mental process and at the same time a basis of formation and development of other more complex processes: perceptions (see), thinking (see), imagination (see), representations, etc. In this process energy of the outside world will be transformed to the fact of consciousness. At O.'s means of people sensually learns the world surrounding it and directionally influences it. The most significant role is played at the same time by sight and touch. «The feeling is an image of moving matter — V. wrote P1. Lenin. — Otherwise, as through feelings, we neither about any forms of substance and nor about any forms of motion we can learn nothing...» (V. I. Lenin, Poln, SOBR. soch., 5th prod., t. 18, page 320).
The main characteristic of O. — its modality — is defined by what general properties of this or that form of motion of matter in it are reflected (optical, acoustic, mechanical, chemical etc.). The modality characterizes the general function of the analyzer phylogenetic adapted for reflection of certain influences and making a certain type of O. (visual, acoustical, tactile, olfactory, flavoring).
In each separate O. in the form of a modality the general properties of this form of the movement of matter are reflected. Manifestations of this property in a single subject (phenomenon) influencing directly sense bodys give quality of the Lake. On qualities each modality is diverse. So, the main qualities of acoustical O. are the loudness, height, a timbre and duration of a sound, and also the space provision of a source of a sound.
The problem O. arose and a long time was developed in philosophy. Questions of the relation of matter and consciousness, cognoscibility of the world, the truth, etc. are closely connected with questions of O.'s nature and their role in processes of knowledge. The materialistic philosophy considered and considers O. as reflection of matter, idealistic — as a product of activity of consciousness (spirit, etc.).
Subject of specific and scientific and pilot study the problem O. became at the end of 18 century in connection with questions of objectivity of sightings and the calculations based on them, ratios of light and sight, a sound and hearing etc. In the first half of 19 century the problem O. was investigated preferential in physiology and psychology. In studying of sensory physiology especially big contribution was made by G. Helmholtz — the founder fiziol. optics and fiziol, acoustics. In the second half of 19 century the quantitative relations between physical characteristics of external irritants and called by them the Lake become an object of research. Emergence of this new area of knowledge — psychophysis — is connected with E. Weber and G. Fechner's works. Becomes later a problem of a research O. than complex.
Is of great importance in studying of a problem O. reflex theory (see), the foundation a cut is laid by I. M. Sechenov's works. It showed the reflective nature of O. and nkh the regulating role in behavior. The big contribution to a research of this aspect of a problem O. was made by domestic physiologists and psychologists — I. P. Pavlov, A. A. Ukhtomsky, V. M. Bekhterev, S. V. Kravkov, To. X. Kekcheev, B. M. Teplov, B. G. Ananyev, etc.
Dialektiko - the materialistic understanding of the nature and O.'s essence was created in fight against idealistic and mechanistic concepts.
Known it is mute. the physiologist I. Müller, based on the facts testimonial of specialization of sense bodys, put forward the principle of so-called specific energy of sense bodys in 19 century. According to this principle, O.'s characteristics depend not on properties of the influencing irritant, and on features of body, in Krom there is a process of irritation. And, therefore, O. is not reflection of an irritant, but expression of specific energy of this body (light, color, a sound, the smell, etc. is only the conditions of consciousness having with the real processes proceeding in a material world nothing in common).
On the philosophical essence I. Müller's position was adjoined by G. Helmholtz's concept announcing O. only hieroglyphs, symbols of external influences.
The similar point of view is stated by J. Ekkls, well-known the works in the field of an electrophysiology. He claims that physical objects, matter and energy, on the one hand, and feelings, perception, consciousness, etc., with another, represent the different worlds, at the same time the world of matter is the world derivative; thus, the reality is derivative of the world of feelings, mentality in general. Each of these worlds, on Ekklsa, exists in own space.
All these concepts represent different options so-called fiziol. idealism also express philosophical helplessness of those who, investigating work of a brain, cannot overcome narrowness of metaphysical approach. Without finding O. in objectively studied neurodynamics and at the same time understanding that O. is the real fact, they claim that there are different mggra and refuse attempts of understanding of dialectics of energy conversion of the outside world in O. Fiziol, the idealism is closed, on the one hand, with mechanistic concepts, otrrshchayugtsy O.'s reality or announcing it epifenomeny, a shadow fiziol, processes, with another — with the introspective psychology claiming that O. cannot be studied by objective methods the only way of their knowledge is introspection (see. Introspection ).
The alliance of physiological idealism with introspective psychology found very expressive manifestation in philosophy of an empiriokrititsizm, in particular in E. Makh's work «The analysis of feelings». The convincing criticism of an empiriokrititsizm is given by V. I. Lenin in the book «Materialism and Empiriokrititsizm».
V. I. Lenin showed that only from positions of dialectic materialism on the basis of the theory of reflection the nature of the Lake can be understood.
The dialectic materialism opens a way of consistently scientific studying of development of O. (as well as other mental phenomena) in process biol, evolutions of animals and historical development of the person. For understanding of specifics of human O. and its role in knowledge it is not enough to consider high development and complex structure of analyzers in the person, knowledge fiziol, and biochemical, mechanisms O. First of all it must be kept in mind that «... feelings of the public person essence other feelings, than feeling of the asocial person». (To. M and r to with and F. Engels, Soch., 2nd prod., t. 42, page 122). It ziachit that O.'s formation at the person happens generally under the influence of social conditions of his existence and its practical activities, first of all work.
As showed researches of the Soviet psychologists (B. G. Ananyev, N. K. Gusev, V. I. Kauffman, L. I. Seletskaya, B. M. Teplov, etc.), in the course of subject practical activities possibilities of the person concerning detection, distinguishing and an identification of properties of the signals influencing sense bodys significantly extend. Work defines development of the touch and perceptual organization of the person.
«Only thanks to in detail developed wealth of the human being — writes To. Marx — develops, and and is for the first time generated by a part, richness of subjective human sensuality: a musical ear, feeling beauty of eye shape — to put it briefly, such feelings which are capable to human pleasures and which approve themselves as human intrinsic forces. Because not only five external feelings, but also so-called spiritual feelings, practical feelings (a will, love etc.) — in a word, the human feeling, humanity of feelings — arise only thanks to existence of the corresponding subject, thanks to the humanized nature. Formation of five external feelings is a work of all previous world history» (K. Mark with and F. Engels, Soch., 2nd prod., t. 42, page 122).
The Soviet psychological science, being guided by the principles of dialectic and historical materialism, convincingly proved that O.'s specifics at the person depend on the organization of his life and activity.
So, B. M. Teplov conducted the long-term research which showed that such quality as ear for music, forms is intravital during mastering personality (see) musical culture. He developed the special system of training providing active development of sensitivity to distinguishing of a type of a sound, melodic hearing, LVL feeling, harmonious hearing, feeling of a rhythm.
Thus, O.'s specifics at the person can be disclosed only on condition of the analysis of its social being.
Physiological mechanisms of feeling
Fiziol, O.'s basis is system of the nervous processes which are developed in analyzer (see). At impact of the external agent on a receptor there are signals, to-rye are transmitted through system of conduction paths in bark of big cerebral hemispheres. In the course of transfer there is a number of transformations of these signals, however is information they remain invariant thanks to what at all transformations of signals O.'s adequacy to the reflected property of the subject influencing a sense body is provided.
Between a receptor and a brain there is not only a direct (centripetal), but also return (centrifugal) communication, i.e. the mechanism O. represents a complete reflex, a reflex ring. This ring joins also vascular reactions and the accompanying reactions of century of N of page. The big role in O.'s processes belongs to the movements of sense bodys (e.g., to the movements of eyes).
Not any irritant causes the Lake. A considerable part of the nervous signals coming from receptors to a brain is not realized in the form of O. though they can cause this or that reaction of an organism. In order that there was O., a certain intensity of irritation of analyzers is necessary. The smallest intensity of irritation causing scarcely noticeable O. carries the name «lower absolute limit of feeling». O.'s threshold can be above threshold of reaction of an organism. Subjectively weak irritations since they are lower than O.'s threshold are not perceived, but on them it is possible to form conditioned reflexes. The size of an absolute threshold of O. is not invariable, and depends from funkts, conditions of an organism, mobility of receptors, adaptations.
The maximum intensity of irritation which is still causing an adequate feeling is called an upper absolute limit. If the sense body is influenced by irritation, intensity to-rogo above upper limit, there is a painful Lake. Limits of sensitivity are defined by absolute thresholds. Resolving power of sense bodys — a differential threshold, or the differential threshold of O. determined by that minimum distinction in intensity of irritation, a cut causes scarcely noticeable distinction of O. Otnosheniye for the first time of the felt gain of an irritant to its reference value remains a constant irrespective of the absolute value of an irritant; it received the name «Buger's law — Weber».
Expression of this law: ΔJ/J = K, where ΔJ — the gain of irritation necessary for receiving a scarcely noticeable difference of feeling; J — initial intensity of irritation; To — a constant. Further E. Weber and G. Fechner, measuring differential thresholds, offered a formula of the so-called fundamental psychophysical law (Weber's law — G. Fechner), according to O.'s Krom increases in proportion to a logarithm of intensity of irritation: S = alogJ + b, where S — size O.; and and b — constants. The assumption of constancy and an invariance of a scarcely noticeable difference between two incentives distinguished by the person is the cornerstone of this law. The specified form of dependence is fair only at average intensivnost of irritants.
Comparative study of broad range of intensity of various irritants allowed to come to conclusion that O. increases as a power function of intensity (Stephens's law) rather: S = a (J — R) n , where and — a constant, value the cut depends on the chosen units; J = incentive; R — a threshold incentive; n — an exponent, various for different modalities of irritants. However and the sedate form of dependence is not universal, sometimes it is described by S-shaped or linear function. The lake can be characterized also on spatio-temporal indicators. The minimum distance between two irritating points, at Krom they are for the first time perceived as separate, carries the name «space threshold of feeling». Can be examples visual acuity (see) or tactile circles of Weber (see. Touch ). The lake of space is founded that it is caused by the irritations operating on receptors of different sense bodys (a retina of an eye, skin). As a result of integration into c. the N of page of the nervous signals arriving from visual, musculocutaneous and vestibular devices arises space feeling.
In order that O. was discrete and one was divided in time from another, the minimum interval between two irritants is necessary, at Krom they are for the first time felt separately. Such minimum interval is called «a time threshold of feeling». If, e.g., the frequency of light flashings is higher than nek-ry critical value, there is continuous O. (critical frequency of merge of flashings).
Results of a research of thresholds of O. are widely applied in clinic during the studying of neurodynamics of the healthy and sick person, and also in a work practice where it is necessary organoleptic, tasting, photometric and other estimates.
Comparison on the awake person of results of a research of the touch processes proceeding in the sensitive fibers caused by a certain irritation with arising at this O. showed that many characteristics of O., such as absolute threshold, logarithmic or sedate dependences of O. at most irritations, a form of adequate irritation and its modality, are found already at the receptor level and do not change in the highest departments of a brain. So, the deviation by 5 degrees of a hair of skin causes emergence of the only nervous impulse in single skin fiber and corresponding to this O. of a touch, equal to an absolute threshold. The size of a space threshold of two-point distinguishing (tactile circles of Weber) corresponds to distance between the neighboring receptive fields of skin since at simultaneous irritation of two points located in one receptive field there is only one category of nervous impulses and O. corresponding to it of a touch in one point of skin. Correlations between character of an impulsation from the receptors of skin caused by action of diverse mechanical irritations (a smooth and rough surface), and feelings of various forms of a surface are noted. The lake of various frequencies of vibration irritation of skin at the person corresponds excitement on extremely measure of two types of skin fibers. The lake of accurately localized vibration on stimulation with a frequency of 5 — 40 Hz is provided with activation of afferent fibers of surface layers of skin; more deeply projected and indistinctly localizable O. is connected with excitement by more high frequencies of hypodermic little bodies of Pachini.
As the organism is at the same time affected by a set of irritants, any O. depends not only on properties of a specific irritant, but also on all set of the irritants operating on receptors of other analyzers. It is resulted by change of sensitivity of sense bodys. Such is the increase in sound sensitivity under the influence of photoirritations for the first time described in 1904 by P. P. Lazarev or the change of sensitivity of the visual device under the influence of sound irritations studied by S. V. Kravkov. Consensual work of sense bodys is the cornerstone of irregular shapes of O. connected with perception of the world around.
One of forms of interaction of O. is the so-called synesthesia (with - feelings) — emergence in response to irritation of one sense body not only O., characteristic of it, but also O. of other modality. So, at action of a sound there can be along with acoustical and light (or color) O. or temperature
O. O. classify on exteroceptive, caused by irritations from the environment, and interoceptive, caused by irritations from internal environment of an organism. A specific place among the last is held by the system O. (thirst, hunger etc.) connected with emotions. One of interoceptive O.' forms is the proprioceptive O. caused by irritation of sensitive formations of sinews, muscles and sheaves. At this O. of a condition of own muscles (muscle sense) the visual Lake is less clear and accurate, than, e.g. Therefore I. M. Sechenov called them «dark feelings». At action of the damaging irritation there is nociceptive O.: it gives only very rough reflection of quality of an irritant, but bears a signal biol, dangers., protecting an organism from destruction. Along with such «normal» pain there is pain «pathological», being a source of burdensome sufferings, various ways of anesthesia are directed to fight about a cut,
O. is closely connected with requirements of an organism (and the identity of the person) in certain living conditions and activity. External impact on sense bodys is reflected in O. relatively to requirements thanks to what O. receives emotional coloring, gains emotional tone. Features of emotional tone (positive, negative, neutral) depends on development of requirements of an organism (and the identity of the person) and conditions of his life. Flavoring, olfactory, temperature and interoceptive O. have rather steady emotional tone. The same can be told about painful Lakes. This results from the fact that in O. of the listed modalities external influences are reflected in continuous communication with conditions of internal environment of an organism. Emotional tone of visual, acoustical and tactile O. is less steady.
Methods of a research of feelings
In researches O. at the person are used the psychophysical methods allowing to open the relations between the physical quantities influencing sense bodys, and arising at this influence of O. Obychno voluntary responses of the person in response to these or those signals (irritants) and verbal reports are registered. Also methods of registration of EEG, evoked potentials of a brain, conditioned reflexes and various vegetative reactions (a pletizmografiya, galvanic skin responses etc.) are applied. Thanks to development of a non-invasive technique of assignment of pulse activity from skin and muscle nerve fibrils an opportunity to study electric processes in primary afferent ways and to compare them with character of the arising Lake opened.
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B. F. Lomov; A. I. Esakov (fiziol.).