FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF GERMANY

From Big Medical Encyclopedia

The FEDERAL REPUBLIC of GERMANY, Germany — the state in Central Europe. Borders on GDR, Czechoslovakia, Austria, Switzerland, France, Luxembourg, Belgium, the Netherlands, Denmark. It is washed Northern and Baltic by the seas. Also following islands are a part of Germany: East Frisian, North Frisian, Helgoland and the Dune in the North Sea, the island Femarn in the Baltic Sea. The area is 248 thousand sq.km, the population of 59,7 million people (1983). The capital — Bonn (the population — 286,8 thousand people). Ofits. language — German.

Germany — the federal republic as a part of 10 lands. The head of state — the president — is elected for

5 years by Federal Assembly. The supreme legislative body — two -

ward parliament, consists of the Bundestag (Chamber of Deputies) elected for 4 years and chamber of lands, in to-ruyu members of the land governments are appointed. The Bundestag as a part of 497 deputies adopts laws, elects the head of the federal government, participates in an election of the president of the republic. The chamber of lands consists of 41 deputies; it carries out predstav



a telstvo of lands. Executive power belongs to the government headed by the federal chancellor.

Sowing. a part of Germany is in borders of the North German Plain, on S.-V. — hilly thin heights and numerous lakes. The hilly foothills form transition to low and medium-to-high Srednegermansky mountains and heights of a middle part of the country. In the south of the country the Bavarian plateau, in the extreme South — front ridges of East Alps is located. The climate is moderate, sea and transitional from sea to continental.

Germany — the advanced capitalist country. On the volume of gross national product and industrial production takes


the third place in the capitalist the world after the USA and Japan.

National structure of F P noroden. Apprx. 94% of the population of d Germans lyat. There are значит^ groups of immigrants,» l. about the countries of Southern Europe. An average nost of the population 238 people on with expressed to fluctuations of 2 thousand people on 1 nm2 in Ruhr and ^ speeches of Rhine and Main to the 100th p 1 of sq.km in separate rural the I Indicators natural dvsh;

the population in Germany a predsta;

in the table. These tables and with howl that despite nek-rs the vysheniye of birth rate and a sna of mortality in 1980 in srav1

since 1975, in the country in min.

decade is noted to a pra' ny mortality over we give rise< that in a certain measure obusl (a deformirova age< Tura to a nasa after the second howl wars, that, the low nost conducts: to a zheniye of ugly faces, st and a post of the population of persons are more senior in 1981 with lyalo near Average p a zhitelnost costing men of 70,2 women — 76 Increase in persons seniors: Rostov yav. one of p stabilizatssh kazately mortality, Skye the smer tends an abutment of i | to a zheniye. Ma skaya smertns made 1981 20 on 100 0 | Dov. In Germany there is no incidence, national about tics. Rezulta' baroque researches pokaz that the greatest specific Sunday diseases of bodies a niya (23%), bodies krovoob a niya (22%), motive anri (13%) etavlyat, injuries (7,2%), loonies * frustration (5%). 1

Among registered ish { lezny in 1981 most met gonorrhea — 82,1, monelleza — 70,7, infektsionn) patit — 33,2, syphilis and its ni of a stviye — 9,2, shigelloses — 2, £ a ningokokkovy infection — 1,1 teas on 100 000 population. I Most frequent prich death are diseases of sulfurs, vascular system (51%), zl<’


stvenny new growths (22%), accidents and violent death (6%); on inf. including tuberculosis and pneumonia, 0,6% of total number of cases of death are necessary a disease.

Management of a health system is decentralized; the leading place belongs to the bodies of health care of lands performing management of network to lay down. - the prof. of institutions and control of activity of private medical practitioners. At the federal level the Ministry of affairs of youth, family and health care deals with issues of health care. The circle of questions subordinated to it includes medicine and veterinary science, specialized medical aid, pharmaceutical business, a dignity. supervision of foodstuff, etc. Single questions of health protection are under authority of the Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs (insurance on a case of a disease, work of BC, rehabilitation, labor protection).

In Germany there is no general legislation concerning health care, together with it, the federal government makes limited legislative decisions

on fight with inf. the diseases constituting danger for about-va, uses of pharmaceuticals, drugs and a toksa

of chesky substances, use of foodstuff and consumer goods and also to questions of social insurance and ochre

ny work, financial aid-tsam, etc. As the federal administration has no the right of jurisdiction, legislative functions are assigned to the governments of lands, to-rye also directly put into practice federal laws. Coordination of activity in the field of health care is provided with the Conference of Ministers of Health, the Working group of medical administrators and a number of the working groups created both at the federal level and at the level of lands. The federal administration and administration of lands have advisory bodies, such as Federal council of health care and councils of health care of lands at the order.

In the country are absent the national (state) development plan for health care. On separate problems special programs are formed. System of obligatory social insurance, a cut more than 90% of inhabitants are captured, provides payment of a part of expenses on medical aids, and also payment of grants in case of disability. At hospital treatment insurance cash desks refund to 75% of expenses, during the rendering other types of medical services — 65 — 75%.


The social insurance fund consists of contributions of workers (35%), businessmen (45%) and the state allocations (20%). The Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs knows questions of social insurance.

Hospitals are, as a rule, under authority of municipalities or voluntary about - century. In 1980 would be 3234 on 707 710 beds (118 on 10 000 population), 53% of beds were under authority of municipalities, 35% — under the authority of the charitable organizations and 12% — in private-tsakh.

The extra hospital help is in hands of private medical practitioners, to-rye work under the contracts of insurance cash desks. In the country shortage of general practitioners is felt, it is preferential in rural areas and on suburbs of the cities. In recent years the tendency of association of private medical practitioners in groups is observed.

So-called service of public health care, in a cut in 1976 4068 doctors, 1814 dentists and 2603 social workers were busy, know questions of protection of motherhood and the childhood, including planning of a family, questions of school hygiene, professional hygiene, the organization of clinicodiagnostic researches, exercise control for epidemiol. situation. This service does not deal with problems of treatment.

Functions on a dignity. to environmental control are assigned to the Ministry of Internal Affairs. In 1974 the federal law on environment protection against emissions of harmful substances was adopted. Activity in the area a dignity. educations it is coordinated by the Federal center for sanitary education; the main attention is paid to questions of planning of a family, fight against drug addiction, alcoholism and smoking, improper feeding and a hypodynamia.

In the territory of Germany balneological and balneoklima-tichesky resorts are located: Bud Ems (see Ems), Baden-Baden (see), Ead-Homburg, Wiesbaden (see), Bud-Naukheym, Bud-Vil-dungen, Bud-Kissingen, etc.; on the Baltic coast — seaside climatic stations.

For the end of 1980 in the country 139 431 doctors (22,65 for 10 000 population), from them about a half as privately practicing worked; more than a half of specialists doctors gave extra hospital help. The number of dentists made 33 240 (5,6 on 10 000 population), nurses in hospitals — 218 164.

In 1976 in the country was 28 medical f-tov, 9629 students, and 1681 educational institutions on training of workers of health care of other categories studied at 1 course to-rykh (generally nurses).

Questions of postdegree improvement of doctors are regulated by laws of certain lands and charters of the professional organizations of doctors; the last are responsible for recognition of diplomas of specialists doctors.

Coordination, planning and financing of medicobiological researches carry out National council on science. The ministry of scientific research and technology, and also German research about-in. From scientific medical institutions are most known: German scientific issle

the dovatelsky oncological center (Heidelberg), Ying t of diabetes (Düsseldorf), Ying t of Robert Koch, Ying t of hygiene of water, the soil and air, in-you Max Pettenkofer, social medicine and epidemiology, a physics health, veterinary medicine of Robert Osterta-ga, Ying t of pharmacy.


The NATURAL MOVEMENT of the POPULATION of Germany from 1950 to 1980 (for 1000 the population)



the Bibliography: The sixth review of a condition of health care in the world of 1973 — 1977, the p. 2, page 372, Geneva, WHO, 1981; Health services in Europe, v. 2 — Country reviews and statistics, Copenhagen, 1981.

M of H. Savelyev.

Яндекс.Метрика