FAUNA (Latin Fauna the goddess of the woods and fields, the patroness of herds of animals) — historically developed set of the animal species living in a certain territory or the water area.
T. consists of faunistic complexes, each of to-rykh is connected with certain zones — tundra, taiga, forest, steppe, etc. Belonging of separate animal species to this or that complex is determined by similarity of fields of their distribution (areas). Places of emergence, time and dispersal routes of the types forming F., are various. In each region allocate types, an origin to-rykh it is connected with this region (autochtons), and types, (immigrants) who got into the region from the outside. The term «fauna» is used also for designation of animal various systematic categories of a certain region (e.g., fauna of bugs of Europe) or the geological period (modern F., Pliocene F., etc.). Studying F. the faunistics — the section of zoogeography is engaged (see). One of important aspects of faunistics is the analysis biocenotic (see the Biocenosis) and the landscape and geographical complexes defining an ochagovost of many inf. diseases — plagues, encephalitis, a tularemia, etc. (see. Natural ochagovost).
Bibliography: B about r and N with to and y N. A. and
Gladkov of N. A. Geografiya of animals, page 59, M., 1961; In about r about N about in A. G. Biogeografiya (with elements of biology), page 8, M., 1963; Geptner V. G. The general zoogeography, M. — L., 1936.
V. F. Orlova.