FATTY PRODUCTS — food stuffs in which chemical composition neutral fats — triglycerides prevail (70% and more). items represent the emitted and processed reserve fats of animals or seeds of oily plants according to what they are subdivided on. the item of animal origin (oil cow, shpig, animal melted fats, fats of marine mammals and fishes) and vegetable (vegetable oils — sunflower, cotton, corn, soy, mustard). In addition, the industry makes artificial. item: margarine and various special food fats (confectionery, culinary, etc.).
The term «fatty products» fullestly characterizes nutrition value of sources of fat in a diet since considers not only quantity and qualitative features of triglycerides, but also all sum of features of their chemical structure (nonlipid components, vitamins, phospholipids and other physiologically active agents).
Butter (see. butter ) prepares by allocation from cream of fatty fraction together with components of milk plasma (an aqueous medium of milk). In practice of butter manufacture there are two essentially different ways of production of butter: the first — receiving oil by method of knocking down of cream of average fat content (28 — 35%) in masloizgotovitel of periodic and continuous action; the second — production of oil in the line way with receiving an intermediate product in the form of cream of high fat content (71 — 83%) and their subsequent transformation to oil by simultaneous cooling and machining.
Different types of butter (Vologda, amateur, country) differ on moisture content and the accompanying substances (proteins, lactose, etc.).
Butter contains on average 71 — 83% of milk fat, apprx. 1% of proteins, 0,6 — 0,9% of lactose, apprx. 0,3% of mineral substances and from 16 to 25% of moisture. Nutrition value of butter is caused by also high content Retinolum (see).
Butter belongs to digestible. item. However in it low contents irreplaceable linoleic to - you (to 5% of the general to - t of fat). Therefore its combination in food to vegetable oils is necessary. It is made enriched linoleic to - that the Dietary butter.
Melted butter represents refined milk fat. Content of fat in it not less than 98%, no more than 1% of moisture and 1% of other substances — protein, lactose, mineral salts. Receive it by remelting of butter. All vitamins inherent in butter, in melted butter almost do not remain. More, than in other animal fats, contains in melted butter cholesterol (0,3-0,5%).
Oil shall be stored packed into boxes or barrels in refrigerators at temperatures below 0 °; at delivery of oil in retail chain stores it shall have temperature not higher than 10 °. And at catering establishments oil shall be stored in retail chain stores at a temperature not over 12 °.
Some types of butter, e.g. Vologda, country, are not subject to long-term storage. They shall be realized no later than 30-days term from the date of development.
Animals melted . the items called in use by soft tallow represent the fats extracted by melting from fatty tissue of productive animals. The most widespread food animal fats are beef, mutton, pork. As a part of animal fats prevail firm saturated (limit) fat to - you, than and their refractoriness (tab.) is caused.
Table. Temperature of melting and hardening of some types of fats and oils and contents in them fatty acids
Comprehensibility of fat in a digestive tract depends on temperature of melting of food fats. The beef and mutton fat having temperature of melting higher than 44 ° is worse soaked up in intestines and therefore it is not recommended to include large numbers of these. the item in a diet. Shpig and pork melted fat more fusible also contain more irreplaceable linoleic to - you, than fat.
Animals. items are developed the highest and first grades. Animal melted fats of the premium contain moisture no more than 0,2% and not higher than 1,2 mg of KOH, and fats of the first grade of 0,3% of moisture and acid number of 2,2 mg the GAME have acid number; they are stored up to 12 months at a temperature not above — 12 ° or up to 6 months at a temperature from — 5 to — 8 ° and relative humidity of 85 — 90%. Storage of fats at t is allowed ° 5 — 6 ° no more than 30 days from the date of development.
Fats of marine mammals and fishes contain in the structure a significant amount polyunsaturated fat to - t with four and five double bonds. — clupanodonic (with five double bonds) and to products of its oxidation attribute to one of these acids that characteristic fish smell which is inherent in all fats of marine animals and fishes. Bystry oxidation at storage and emergence as a result of this off-flavor interfere with use of fat of fishes as an independent fatty product.
Fat of fishes in the natural form is applied only in fish-canning production to filling of fish canned food. The fat emitted from a liver of cod fishes (a cod, a haddock, a pollack), contains many fat-soluble vitamins (Retinolum to 10 mg of %, holekaltsiferol apprx. 0,2 mg of %) thanks to what it is extremely valuable the to lay down. properties (see. Fish oil ).
Vegetable. the item, or vegetable oils (see. Vegetable oils ), have a liquid consistence, edges is defined by existence in their structure preferential unsaturated fat to - t. Content in vegetable oils of a large number irreplaceable is especially important for the person linoleic to - you (e.g., in sunflower-seed oil apprx. 60% of all fat to - t, in cotton oil apprx. 50%). Linoleic to - that defines high nutrition value of vegetable oils which contain also tocopherol (vitamin E) which is carrying out a role of antioxidant in fabrics.
Vegetable oils take from seeds of various oily plants (sunflower, a cotton, soy, flax, colza, hemp, a peanut, etc.) by pressing or extraction, subject to further cleaning (purification). In the course of purification all undesirable substances are removed, and refined oil becomes the most homogeneous. As a result of purification oil is impoverished by phosphatides, sterols, vitamins and other biologically active agents. The vegetable oils intended for direct consumption in food are produced in not refined look, except for cotton oil, a cut because of presence at it gossypol (see) demands special cleaning. Corn oil is exposed usually to deodorization since the aromatic substances passing into it from corn germs give to oil off-flavor and smack. Soybean oil, a cut develop only in the extraction way, before use for the food purposes subject to careful purification using deodorization.
The vegetable oil (sunflower, cotton, corn, etc.) packaged in glass or plastikatovy tanks shall be stored in boxes in the enclosed space without access of light at a temperature not over 18 °. A shelf-life of 4 months from the date of pouring.
Artificial. items represent fats which basis is the hydrogenated fat salomas, received by transformation of vegetable oils or liquid fat of marine mammals into the product possessing a firm consistence. Process of such transformation consists in influence of hydrogen at an elevated temperature in the presence of the catalyst (some metals) on unsaturated fat to - you. The last, being saturated with hydrogen, are translated in limit fat to - you to a firm consistence. Also the method of production of a salomas by hydrotransesterification of mixes of vegetable oils with animal fats gained distribution. This process along with the selective hydrogenation of vegetable oil includes inside - and the intermolecular transesterification of an animal fat and oil reducing temperature of melting and increasing plasticity of a ready salomas. At both ways of production salomas loses valuable polyunsaturated fat to - you, vitamins and phospholipids. It is considered by production of margaric products (see. Margarin ). Margarine enriches not only flavoring additives (cream, powdered milk and so forth), but also linoleic to - that (add necessary amount of sunflower-seed oil), and also fat-soluble vitamins. Margarine can approach butter on tastes, and to surpass it in nutrition value as a result of an optimum ratio of all components. In the same way make dietary. the items intended for treatment and prevention of disbolism.
Cooking fats — anhydrous mix of a salomas with thin vegetable oils or animal melted fats. Content of fat in cooking fats not less than 99%.
Cooking fats have t ° pl 28 — 36 ° and a consistence from mazeobrazny to firm. They shall be stored in warehouse or refrigerators with continuous circulation and air flow at the relative humidity which is not exceeding 80%. Under such circumstances storages are established the following terms of implementation of fats from the date of development depending on temperature: from — 4 to 0 ° — 6 months, from 1 to 4 ° — 4 months, from 5 to 10 ° — 2 months, from 11 to 18 ° — 20 days.
Fats confectionery and for bread baking are produced on special compoundings for use in confectionery and baking production.
See also Fats, in food .
Bibliography: Hygiene of food, under the editorship of. K. S. Petrovsky, t. 1 — 2, M., 1971; Liberman S. G. and Petrovsky V. P. Reference book on production of food animal fats, M., 1972; The Guide to technology of receiving and processing of vegetable oils and fats, under the editorship of A. G. Sergeyev, L., 1973; Tyutyun-nikov B. N. Himiya of fats, M., 1974, bibliogr.
A. A. Pokrovsky, M. Ya. Brents.