FASTING DAYS — days of observance of special diets with reduced caloric content. Rubles of were known in an extreme antiquity. In ancient manuscripts there are instructions on expediency of restriction of diets at treatment of various diseases. Depending on dominance in a diet of these or those feedstuffs P. of subdivide on proteinaceous, carbohydrate, fatty (are applied seldom) and combined. Fasting days treat as well the modes of a complete starvation (see. Starvation , medical), so-called water days. Rubles of appoint for the purpose of stimulation of exchange processes, removal from an organism of nedookislenny products of interstitial exchange and excesses of sodium, increase in a diuresis. Rubles of appoint against the background of the main medical diet (see. clinical nutrition ) 1 — 3 time a week. The number of meals in such days — 4 — 6 times. Depending on indications, the nature of a disease of the patient and individual portability they can alternate and be dual or stroyenny. Indications for R.'s appointment serve diseases of cardiovascular and digestive systems, kidneys, disbolism, intoxications.
Rubles of at their correct appointment are well had by patients. However some of them can have hypoglycemic states which quickly pass after reception of sweet tea.
Proteinaceous fasting days
their Action is caused by the low caloric content of a diet and specific influence of protein (see. Proteins ) on a metabolism. Meat, cottage cheese and milk R. of concern to them.
Appoint meat R. at obesity, a fosfaturiya, rheumatism of a small degree of activity, especially at its combination to obesity. The diet in such day consists of 600 g of the fat-free beef boiled in water without salt, 0,6 — 0,8 kg of fresh vegetables (carrots, cabbage in a crude or stewed look, cucumbers, tomatoes, etc.) broth of a dogrose, tea or rather weak coffee with milk or without milk. The total amount of liquid shall not exceed 1 l.
Cottage cheese R. are shown to at obesity, atherosclerosis, an idiopathic hypertensia, rheumatism of a small degree of activity. The patient receives 400 — 600 g of cottage cheese of 9% of fat content or fat-free, 2 glasses of milk or kefir and 1 — 2 glass of broth of a dogrose.
Appoint milk R. in two options. The first option is shown at cardiovascular insufficiency of the II—III degree: each 2 — 3 hours (6 times a day) on 100 g of milk in a warm look and 200 g of fruit or berry juice for the night; 2 times a day can be added on 25 g of the dried salt-free bread. The second option is appointed at obesity, atherosclerosis, urate diathesis, gout, an urolithiasis with an uraturia: each 2 — 2,5 hours 200 g of milk, kefir, acidophilus milk or curdled milk of 1% of fat content or fat-free.
Carbohydrate fasting days
Are used by hl. obr. the complex carbohydrates (see) which are contained in vegetables and fruit. Their efficiency is caused by the small caloric content, influence of salts of potassium on increase in a diuresis, increase in a tone of vessels, metabolism of a myocardium and a liver, and also alkalization of urine and removal of oxalate and urate salts. Also other vegetable R. is most widely used apple, kuragovy (potassium), rice kompotny, potato.
Appoint apple R. at obesity, a hypertension, atherosclerosis, hron, nephrite, gout, urate diathesis, hron, a coloenteritis. The patient in 5 receptions receives 1,2 — 1,5 kg of crude or baked apples. At nephrite the diet can be added with 50 — 100 g of sugar and 1 — 2 glasses of broth of a dogrose. At hron, a coloenteritis with diarrhea apples are given in a grated look, cleared of a peel and seeds.
Kuragovy (potassium) R. is shown to at diseases of cardiovascular system with a circulatory disturbance, at obesity and urate diathesis. The day diet includes 500 g of slightly soaked dried apricots and 2 glasses of broth of a dogrose.
Rice kompotny R. is appointed at diseases of a liver and bilious ways, kidneys, at an idiopathic hypertensia. The day diet consists of 1,2 — 1,5 kg of fresh or 240 g of dry fruit, 50 g of rice and 100 g of sugar; each 3 hours (6 times a day) give to the patient on 1 glass of sweet compote, and 2 times with the sweet rice porridge cooked on water. For patients with the accompanying obesity sugar is excluded from a diet.
Potato R. of is appointed at acute or hron, nephrite, a circulatory unefficiency of the II—III degree. The patient receives from 1 to 2 kg of the baked or boiled in a peel without salt potatoes and 2 glasses of broth of a dogrose.
Vegetable, fruit, berry R. are shown to at atherosclerosis, a hypertension, obesity, diseases of a liver, kidneys, gout, urate diathesis. Fresh vegetables without salt, the patient receives fruit, berries or their combinations 5 times a day on 200 — 300 g; on a portion of vegetables it is possible to add 5 — 10 g of vegetable oil.
The combined (mixed) fasting days
their Efficiency is caused by the small caloric content and versatile influence of a pas interstitial exchange. By drawing up a diet for this type of R. of the most various combinations of proteinaceous, carbohydrate and water fasting days are used. The combined fasting days are formed individually for each patient taking into account indications on the basic and associated diseases and portability with the patient of separate products.
Fatty (unloading) days are applied seldom, preferential at obesity at young age without associated diseases. The day diet consists of 400 g of sour cream or cream which is given in 4 receptions and 2 glasses of broth of a dogrose.
Water fasting days treat the mode of a complete starvation and are appointed to short time terms (1 — 3 day). Action of water fasting days (borzhomny, from vegetable juice, tea) is based on release of an organism from toxicants and slags.
Appoint Borzhomnye R. at gout, urate diathesis, obesity, intoxications. During the day drink at the same time 1,5 l of mineral water Borzhom. Various fruit or vegetable juice is appointed in number of 800 g a day at gout, urate diathesis, obesity, intoxications.
Tea R. are shown to at acute gastritis, a coloenteritis, at various intoxications; in day it is necessary to appoint sick 1,2 — 1,5 l of hot tea without sugar or from 50 g of sugar.
See also Diet .
Bibliography: Karnysheva V. S. and T and-tarnikova G. A. Guide to a dietotherapy, M., 1974; Clinical nutrition, under the editorship of I. S. Savoshchenko, M., 1971; Pevzner M. I. Bases of clinical nutrition, M., 1958; With m about l I am a N with to and y B. L. The guide to clinical nutrition for a diyetsester, L., 1977.
A. N. Sycheva.