FASCIA [fascia (PNA, JNA, BNA); lat. fascia a bandage] — the covers formed by dense fibrous connecting fabric, covering muscles and their sinews, nek-ry bodies and neurovascular bunches. T. are a part of a soft skeleton (see), perform basic and trophic functions.
N. I. Pirogov's works (1838), P. F are devoted to a structure of fastion and their functional value. Lesgafta (1905), A. P. Samarin (1912), V. N. Shevkunenko (1938),
V. V. Kovanov and T. I. Anikina (1961, 1967), A. P. Sorokin (1964), Zinger (E. Singer, 1935), Auber-shtega (J. Obersteg, 1948), Lasta (R. Last, 1956), Lang (J. Lang, 1960), etc. Most of researchers considers that education and development of fascial cases around muscles, bodies and vessels is connected with the movement. Formation F. consider as reaction of connecting fabric to pressure, a cut she tests in connection with change of volume of appropriate authorities in the course of their functioning. Concerning definition of the concept «fascia» of opinion of researchers disperse. Quite often instead of the term «fascia» use the term «aponeurosis». So, A. P. Samarin carries to F. all types of connective tissue covers — from thin kletchatochny to aponeurotic (see the Aponeurosis). Flippers considers fastion only those connective tissue plates, to-rye have fibrous structure and aponeurotic character. V. V. Kovanov and T. I. Anikina carry to F. the connective tissue covers covering muscles, sinews, nerves and bodies; in their opinion, between cellulose, fastion and aponeuroses of big difference is not present (see. Connecting fabric).
Ontogenesis. Formation F. from a mesenchyma begins with 2 — the 4th month of pre-natal development. On the 5th month of fiber of embryonal connecting fabric gather in bunches and will be transformed to collagenic fibers (see Collagen). Elastic fibers (see Elastin) develop after collagenic. In places of contact of embryonal connecting fabric with other fabrics there is a condensation of its boundary layer, it especially is considerably condensed around muscles. In development of fascial vaginas of nerves and vessels distinguish cellular, cellular and fibrous, fibrous and cellular and fibrous stages; transition to another comes from one stage gradually. By the end of the period of pre-natal development F. consist of fibroblasts and separate collagenic fibers, to-rye then gather in posterior pyramids. Newborns have bunches of collagenic fibers in F. are disseminated. In process of growth of fibers their bunches densely adjoin to each other. At adults in F. only the separate, squeezed by fibers cells meet. Crimpiness of collagenic fibers with the correct bend comes to light only by 3rd year of life. By 7 — 10 years of life of the child bends of collagenic fibers in F. reach a maximum. At senile age bends of collagenic fibers finish and in places disappear, between yarns cracks are formed. Thick elastic fibers begin to come to light in F. from 3 years, and by 10 — 11 years they reach the same size and a form, as at adults.
Age changes F. are caused generally by a condition of the vessels and nerves which are carrying out their vascularization and an innervation. At senile age F. are thinned and penetrated by fatty tissue.
Classification. By origin allocate: muscular F., the forming vaginas for muscles and sinews which are often direct continuation of sinews (e.g., a palmar aponeurosis) or the representing reduced muscles (e.g., klyuvo - klyu - chichno - costal F.); the coelomic, connected with education perigastriums — - a tseloma (e.g., intrathoracic F.); paraangialny, formed around neurovascular bunches. Distinguish also superficial fascia and own F.; dense and friable F.
Names F. most often are defined by area of their arrangement (e.g., a cervical, chest fascia), muscles and other bodies, to-rye they cover, and their situation (e.g., a deltoid fascia, a back fascia of foot).
Morfofunktsionalny characteristic. The superficial fascia (fascia superficialis) is located under skin, on a structure approaches cellulose, and on functional purpose is a skeleton of a plant louse superficial circulatory and limf, vessels and nerves, limf, nodes, etc. At animals the muscular layer which partially remained at the person in the form of mimic muscles, a hypodermic muscle of a neck and a dartos of a scrotum is its part. Zinger considers a superficial
fascia as the complex education including fatty tissue. By data A. P. Sorokina, there are two kinds of a superficial fascia: dense voylokoob
different, thick, consisting of the intertwining bunches of collagenic and elastic fibers, and the friable puchkovy form formed rykhlo by the located collagenic and elastic fibers divided by lipoblasts.
Own F. (fasciae propriae) are located more deeply, than superficial, cover the whole areas (e.g., a shoulder, a forearm, etc.) also differentiate groups of muscles or separate muscles, and also quite often serve as the place of their attachment. In most cases they clearly are expressed and presented by plates of various thickness of c of density. Dense F. (aponeuroses) cover groups of muscles or strengthen the arches of foot and always are under direct influence of muscles, to-rye or begin from them, or pass into them with the sinews. Carry a palmar aponeurosis to them, to-ry is continuation of a sinew of a long palmar muscle, the bottom aponeurosis strengthening the arches groans, an aponeurosis of a biceps of a shoulder, an ileal and tibial path in to-ry is interwoven a muscle — a napryagatel of a wide fascia of a hip, etc. Dense F. consist of bunches of the thick collagenic fibers which are strictly oriented in the direction of action of force of reduction of a muscle. Layers of collagenic fibers alternate with elastic, forming networks. Between yarns a small amount of fibrocytes is located. Obershteg showed that F., the covering muscles, are constructed by the principle of «lattice scissors». In them layer-by-layer, one over another the systems of collagenic fibers directed at an angle to each other and cross to the subject muscle fibers are located.
To friable F. belong: perimi-ZSh1, vaginas of vessels and nerves, the cases of muscles forming under the influence of insignificant forces; so, at children and at persons with poorly developed muscles F. are developed badly and remind covers from friable fibrous connecting fabric. By data A. P. Sorokina, friable F. have the structure similar to a structure of a superficial fascia, but bunches of collagenic fibers in them have more strict orientation.
T. are divided into plates (leaves) limiting groups of muscles or located between separate muscles or bodies. Besides, F. form various density the shoots which are attached to bones (intermuscular partitions) or freely coming to an end in layers of friable cellulose or in muscles. The conjunctions fastsial-but-kletchatochnykh educations which are thanks to their attachment to bones rod, basic in a soft skeleton of this area,
V. V. Kovanov of T. I. Anikin call fascial nodes. Together with fascial cases fascial nodes limit distribution of inflammatory processes.
Blood supply F. it is carried out at the expense of nearby main, muscular or skin arteries. Larger arteries accompanied by veins follow in a surface layer F., between bunches of collagenic fibers, giving collaterals. In superficial and deep layers F. all links of a microcirculator bed are located. Venous outflow happens on the veins accompanying arteries in the next large veins.
Limf, capillaries F. form loops on the course of bunches of collagenic fibers. Limf, vessels fall into regional limf. nodes. Innervation F. it is carried out by superficial or deep nerves of this area. T. are rich with the free and encapsulated sensitive nerve terminations located on collagenic fibers or in layers of friable connecting fabric. The palmar and bottom aponeuroses testing not only stretching, but also pressure are especially rich with receptors.
Functions F. are various. They form cases for muscles, vessels and nerves, hold muscles and sinews in a certain situation, are the place of fixing of many muscles, divide groups of muscles and bodies, limit kletp-chashochny spaces (see). As well as all connecting fabric, they play a large role in a water salt metabolism. Knowledge of topography F. it is necessary in surgery during the studying of ways of distribution of pus, the anesthetizing solutions, etc. F. use as plastic material at joint, skull operations, etc. (see the Fasciodesis).
Pathology. Defeats F. have secondary character more often. Inflammatory or tumoral processes pass on F. from muscles, hypodermic cellulose, skin, and also internals and vessels, and fascial cases can limit their distribution during certain time. Besides, patol. changes develop in F. at such diseases as an arthrogryposis (see), a dermatomyositis (see), a scleroderma (see), elephantiasis (see) etc.
To primary zabolevaniyakhm F. it is possible to refer only dystrophic cicatricial defeats of palmar and bottom aponeuroses and tumors, and also seldom found inflammatory processes — fasciites.
Malformations face c and y usually accompany malformations of muscles when along with an underdevelopment of a muscle the underdevelopment of its fascial case or aponeurotic stretching takes place. The hypertrophy of the fascial and copular device in a zone of passing of the main arteries (a celiac trunk, a neurovascular bunch of an upper extremity, etc.) is one of the reasons their ex-grass - a screen compression (see the Scalene a syndrome). Inborn defect F. can serve as the reason of muscular hernia (see Muscles). The underdevelopment of fastion and aponeuroses is the reason of formation of hernias of a stomach (see Hernias). So, weakness cross F. — one of the local contributing factors of development of inguinal hernias, and cracks and openings in an aponeurosis of the white line of a stomach cause developing of epigastriß hernias (hernias of the white line). Weakness renal F. leads to disturbance of fixing of kidneys (see), and weakness or damage F. a pelvic bottom is one of the factors causing a prolapse of the rectum (see) or a uterus (see Attack N and e m and t to and, moisture of l looking for).
Damages of fastion divide on closed, or hypodermic, and open. The closed gaps F. arise at direct stroke by a blunt object or as a result of sharp reduction of a muscle, and also accompany fractures and dislocations. Open damages F. are observed at wounds.
Damage F., as a rule, essential the wedge, does not matter. E.g., excision of a wide fascia of a hip and others F. at a fascial autoplasty does not cause any disturbances. Muscular hernia usually arises at small defect F., through to-ry there is a protrusion of a muscle, and at inborn defect or the isolated gap F. hernia arises at rest, and at the combined damage of a fascia and a muscle — at a tension of a muscle. The diagnosis is based on data a wedge, researches. Muscular hernia on a shin sometimes should be differentiated with varicose expanded vein. Treatment of defect F., complicated by muscular hernia, consists in sewing up of an opening, at the big extent of defect — in a fascioplasty. At open damages F. take in we nerassasyvayu-shchitsya by a suture material so that not to cause a prelum of the vessels which are in this fascial case, nerves and muscles. Forecast favorable.
Diseases. Inflammatory diseases F. — fasciites meet rather seldom. They are divided on focal (local) and diffusion. The knotty fasciitis, or a proliferative nodulyar-ny fasciitis (a pseudosarcomatous nodulyarny fasciitis), represents the focal reactive inflammation which is characterized by rapid infiltriruyushchy growth. The etiology is unknown. It is shown in the form of tumorous nodes in hypodermic cellulose, is more often than upper extremities. Ulcerations on skin are not observed. In diagnosis along with a wedge, data the biopsy is of great importance. Differential diagnosis is carried more often out with different types of sarcomas — a fibrosarcoma (see), an angiosarcoma (see), synovial sarcoma (see the Synovioma), etc., and also with fibroma (see), a dense lipoma (see). Treatment operational — excision of a node. During full removal of a node the forecast favorable, a recurrence is not observed.
The diffusion eosinophilic fasciitis is shown by sklerodermopodobny dense hypostasis, flexion contractures, is followed by an eosinophilia and a hypergammaglobulinemia. At morfol. a research find a considerable thickening superficial F. with lymphocytic and plazmokletochny infiltration. Differential diagnosis is carried out with a scleroderma (see). At a fasciitis unlike it there is no damage of internals and symptoms of an angiotrofonevroz like Reynaud's syndrome (see Reynaud a disease). Treatment by corticosteroids leads to bystry recovery. Forecast favorable.
Among diseases F. most often the fibromatosis of a palmar aponeurosis — a disease (contracture) of Dyupyuitren meets (see Dyupyuit-ren a contracture).
Similar defeat of a bottom aponeurosis carries the name a disease to Ledderkhoza. It is mute. the surgeon of G. Ledderhose who described this disease in 1894 called it a bottom fasciitis. The etiology of a disease is not found out, but since simultaneous defeat of feet and brushes is often observed, it is possible that at a disease to Ledderkhoza, as well as at a palmar fibromatosis, constitutional hereditary inferiority of connecting fabric matters. The disease to Ledderkhoza occurs at 2 — 3% of patients with a palmar fibromatosis. More often men of middle and advanced age are ill. The first symptom of a disease is education in a bottom aponeurosis of the fibrous small knots merging in tyazh. Gradually tyazh it is thickened, gets a dense consistence, it is accustomed to drinking with skin, there is a flexion contracture of fingers, feet, walking is at a loss. Often both feet are surprised. At gistol. a research reveal focal proliferation of connective tissue cells. Treatment of a disease to Ledderkhoza in an early stage — fonoforez with a hydrocortisone (see. Ultrasonic therapy). In the subsequent the most effectively operational treatment consisting in excision of the struck bottom aponeurosis. The forecast at timely treatment favorable; a rare recurrence results from not considerably executed operative measure.
Cicatricial changes of fastion and muscles owing to various inflammatory processes can be the cause of contractures (see), wrynecks (see). The expressed fibrous and sclerous changes in F. extremities develop at elephantiasis (see).
Tumors of fastion divide on high-quality — fibroma (see) and malignant — a fibrosarcoma (see). Besides, in F. connective tissue education meets infiltriruyushchy growth — desmoid (see), belonging to fibromatoses. More often desmoid is localized in an abdominal wall (abdominal). At establishment of the diagnosis the biopsy is of great importance. Treatment of tumors F. and desmoid operational (see Tumours).
Operations. At inborn defects or damages F. make their sewing up — a fasciorrhaphy. At inguinal hernias carry out plastics of the inguinal channel across Kukudzhanov and Shouldays with formation of a dugglikatura cross F. (see Hernias).
Section F. — the fasciotomy is applied at an ischemic contracture of Folkmann (see the Contracture) or in combination with an embolectomy at an embolism of bifurcation of an aorta and arteries of extremities with ischemia of the III degree. Excision patholologically of the changed fastion and aponeuroses — fasciectomy — is made at a palmar fibromatosis, a disease to Ledderkhoza, and also at operations for elephantiasis. A fascioplasty with use of a wide fascia of a hip, is more rare than others F., apply to substitution of defects or plastics of sheaves (see), at an arthroplasty (see), etc. At the same time carry out both an autoplasty (see), and an alloplasty (see) F.
For suture on F. use, as a rule, nerassa-syvayushchiysya a suture material (see).
The LIST the FASTSY
List of fastion is provided in alphabetical order according to PNA, JNA, BNA; it included also the terms which did not enter anatomic nomenclatures, but found in a lettertour.
The word «fascia» in Latin names of fastion is lowered (e.g., instead of Fascia abdominis interna profunda Abdominis interna profunda appears).
1. Abdominis interna profunda, an internal deep fascia of a stomach, see Trans-versalis.
2. Abdominis profunda, a deep fascia of a stomach, see Transversalis.
3. Abdominis superficialis, superficial fascia of a stomach; is located between hypodermic cellulose, a vagina of a direct muscle and an outside oblique muscle of a stomach; consists of two plates better expressed in the bottom of a stomach; the superficial plate passes to a hip, deep — is attached to an inguinal sheaf.
4. Annuli cruralis, a fascia of a femoral ring, see Septum femorale.
5. Antebracliii (PNA, JNA), synonym of anti-brachii (BNA), fascia of a forearm; is continuation of a fascia of a shoulder: covers muscles of a forearm, gives the spurs to bones of a forearm dividing it into three fascial beds; front, outside (beam) and back; in the lower third of a forearm forms thickenings — retinaculums of muscles of sgibatel and razgibatel; proceeds in a fascia of a brush.
6. Antibrachii (BNA), a fascia of a forearm, see Antebrachii.
7. Aponeurosis Denonvillers, Denonviye's aponeurosis, see Septum rectovesicale.
8. Aponeurosis femoralis, a femoral aponeurosis, see Lata.
9. Aponeurosis ischiorectal is, an ischiorectal aponeurosis, see Diaphragmatis urogenitalis inferior.
10. Aponeurosis lumbodorsalis, a lumbar and back aponeurosis, see Thoracolumbalis.
11. Aponeurosis musculi bicipitis brachii (PNA), synonym: lacertus fibrosus (JNA, BNA), Pyrogovi, aponeurosis of a biceps of a shoulder; a part of the tendinous bunches of a biceps of a shoulder which are thrown through an elbow pole and passing into a fascia of a forearm.
12. Aponeurosis omoclavicularis (Ri-chet), a scapularclavicular aponeurosis (Richet), see Lamina pretrachealis fasciae cervicalis.
13. Aponeurosis palmaris (PNA, JNA, BNA), palmar aponeurosis; covers a middle profound part of a palm; has the form of a triangle, the basis to-rogo it is turned to fingers, and the top passes into a sinew of a long palmar muscle and connects to a retinaculum of sgibatel; its fibers disperse fanlikely towards the II—V fingers; cross bunches form its deep layer and are visible between the dispersing longitudinal bunches.
14. Aponeurosis pharyngis, a pharyngeal aponeurosis, see Pharyngobasilaris.
Fig. 1 — 2. Fascia of the head (lateral view). Fig. 1. Parotid and chewing area: 1 — f. masseterica; 2 — f. parotidea., Fig. 2. Temporal area: f. temporalis (it is specified by an arrow).
15. Aponeurosis pharyngobasilaris, a pharyngeal and basilar aponeurosis, see Pharyngobasilaris.
16. Aponeurosis plantaris (PNA, JNA, BNA), bottom aponeurosis; the most part of fibers begins from a calcaneal hillock and connects to an abdomen of a short sgibatel of fingers, kpered breaks up to five bunches according to fingers; side departments are developed more weakly; along with longitudinal fibers are available cross and slanting, two partitions dividing three groups of muscles of a sole depart from an inner surface of a bottom aponeurosis.
17. Aponeurosis puborectalis, pubic pryamskishechny an aponeurosis, see Diaphragmatis urogenitalis superior.
18. Aponeurosis temporalis, a temporal aponeurosis, see Temporalis.
19. Aponeurosis vertebralis, a vertebral aponeurosis, see Thoracolumbalis.
20. Axillaris (PNA, JNA, BNA), axillary, or podkrylydovy fascia; is continuation of a fascia of a breast; is located in an axillary pole; passes in a fascia of a shoulder, back and front gear muscle.
21. Brachii PNA, JNA, BNA), fascia of a shoulder; is continuation podmyshech-
Fig. 3 — 4. Fascia of a neck. Fig. 3. Vtshch sideways: i \platysma ((((((((it (is cut and turned off); 2 — lamina superficialis fasciae cervicalis; z — m. sternocleidomastoideus (is cut and turned off); 4 — lamina pretrachealis fasciae cervicalis: 5 — m. trapezius. Fig. 4. An anterior aspect (superficial muscles are removed): lamina pretrachealis fasciae cervicalis (it is specified by an arrow).
ache a fascia; covers muscles of a shoulder, forming medial and lateral intermuscular partitions; passes into a fascia of a forearm.
22. Buccopharyngea (PNA, BN A), synonym of pharyngobuccinatoria (JNA), shchechnoglotochny fascia; covers an outer surface of a buccal muscle and constrictors of a throat; from a wall of a throat passes to the educations surrounding it.
23. Capsula prostatae (JNA), the capsule of a prostate, see Prostatae.'
24. Cervicalis (PNA), synonym: colli (BNA), colli fasciae (JNA), the cervical fascia, covers muscles and bodies of a neck; forms three plates: superficial (lamina superficialis), pretracheal (lamina pretrachealis) and prevertebral (lamina pre-vertebralis); passes behind into a nuchal fascia.
25. Clavi pecto of hectare of lis (PNA), synonym: coraco-clavicularis (BNA), coracocleidopectoralis (JNA), coracopectoralis, pectoralis profunda, clavicular and chest fascia; is a deep plate of a chest fascia; it is located in the triangle of the same name between a clavicle, a coracoid of a shovel and the upper edge of a small pectoral muscle; at the upper edge of a small pectoral muscle forks and forms a fascial vagina of this muscle; at its bottom edge leaves of a fascia connect in one, to-ry then merges with a superficial plate of a chest fascia; lateralno passes into an axillary fascia.
26. Clitoridis (PNA, JNA, BNA), a fascia of a clitoris, is located on a clitoris iod with skin.
27. Collesi, Kollis a fascia, see Diaphragmatis urogenitalis superior.
28. Colli (BNA), synonym: colli fasciae
(JNA), a fascia of a neck, see Cervicalis.
29. Colli fasciae (JNA), a synonym of Colli (BNA), a fascia of a neck, see Cervicalis.
30. Colli media (JNA), an average fascia of a neck, see Lamina pretrachealis fasciae cervicalis.
31. Colli profunda (praevertebral s)
(JNA), a deep (prevertebral) fascia of a neck, see Lamina prevertebralis fasciae cervicalis.
32. Colli propria, own fascia of a neck (across Shevkunenko), covers muscles of a neck; forms superficial (lamina superficialis) and deep (lamina profunda) of a plate, see Cervicalis.
33. Colli superficialis (JNA), a superficial fascia of a neck, see Lamina superficialis fasciae cervicalis.
34. Colli superficialis, a superficial fascia of a neck (across Shevkunenko), a part of the general superficial (hypodermic) fascia of a body; comprises a hypodermic muscle (t. platysma); passes from a neck to the neighboring areas.
35. Cooperi, Cooper a fascia, see Sge-masterica.
36. Coracoclavieularis (BNA), a coronoid and clavicular fascia, see Clavi pectoralis.
37. Coracocleidopectoralis (JNA), a coronoid and clavicular and chest fascia, see Clavipectoralis.
38. Coracopectoralis, a coronoid and chest fascia, see Clavipectoralis.
3 9. Cremasterica (PNA, JNA), synonym: cremasterica (Cooperi) (BNA), Cooperi, a fascia of the muscle lifting a small egg; begins from a superficial abdominal ring, being continuation of a fascia of a stomach, covers the muscle of the same name, and together with it a seed cord and a small egg.
40. Cremasterica (Cooperi) (BNA), a fascia of the muscle lifting a small egg (Cooper) see Cremasterica.
Fig. 5. A fascia of a throat (frontal section through a base of skull, the back view): f. pha-ryngobasilaris (it is specified by an arrow).
41. Cribrosa (PNA, BNA), synonym: lamina cribriformis fossae ovalis (JNA), lamina cribrosa fasciae latae, membrana cribriformis, a trellised fascia, the part of a wide fascia of a hip located in the field of a hypodermic crack (hiatus saphenus) has openings, through to-rye there pass superficial veins and nerves.
42. Cruris (PNA, JNA, BNA), a fascia of a shin, is continuation of a wide fascia of a hip; covers muscles of a shin; it is well developed on an anteromedial surface; at front and medial edges of a tibial bone grows together with a periosteum; spurs of a fascia create front, lateral and back fascial beds of a shin; in the lower third of a shin the fascia forms retinaculums of sinews of muscles of razgibatel, sgibatel and fibular and passes into a fascia of foot.
43. Deltoidea (PNA), the deltoid fascia, forms a vagina of the muscle of the same name, passes in a fascia of the neighboring areas.
44. Diaphragmatica, phrenic fascia, is a part of an intra belly fascia; covers a lower surface of a diaphragm.
45. Diaphragmatis pelvis externa (JNA), an outside fascia of a diaphragm of a basin, see, Diaphragmatis pelvis inferior.
46. Diaphragmatis pelvis inferior (PNA, BNA), a synonym of diaphragmatis pelvis externa (JNA), the lower fascia of a diaphragm of a basin, is own fascia of anal area; covers walls of an ischiorectal pole.
47. Diaphragmatis pelvis interna (JNA), an internal fascia of a diaphragm of a basin, see Diaphragmatis pelvis superior.
48. Diaphragmatis pelvis superior (PNA, BNA), a synonym of diaphragmatis pelvis interna (JNA), an upper fascia of a pelvic diaphragm, is a part of the parietal fascia of a basin covering the muscle lifting an anus.
49. Diaphragmatis urogenitalis externa (JNA), an outside fascia of an urinogenital diaphragm, see Diaphragmatis urogenitalis inferior.
Diaphragmatis urogenitalis inferior (PNA, BNA), synonym: aponeurosis ischiorecta-lis, Collesi, diaphragmatis urogenitalis externa (JNA), ischioprostatica, Macaliste-ri, membrana perinei perinealis, lower fascia of an urinogenital diaphragm; covers the lower (outside) surface of a deep cross muscle of a crotch and a sphincter of an urethra; it is attached to the lower branches of pubic and sciatic bones; at the upper edge of muscles the lower fascia meets with an upper fascia of an urinogenital diaphragm, forming a cross ligament of a crotch (lig. transversum perinei).
51. Diaphragmatis urogenitalis interna (JNA), an internal fascia of an urinogenital diaphragm, see Diaphragmatis urogenitalis superior.
Diaphragmatis urogenitalis superior (PNA, BNA), synonym: aponeurosis puborecta-lis Collesi diaphragmatis urogenitalis interna (JNA), lateralis prostatae, perinei profunda propria, subpubica, triangularis urethrae, upper fascia of an urinogenital diaphragm: covers the upper (internal)
surface of an urinogenital diaphragm turned into a cavity of a small pelvis. At the upper edge of muscles, to-rye it covers, connects to the lower fascia of an urinogenital diaphragm and forms a cross ligament of a crotch.
5 3. Dorsalis manus (PNA, JNA, BNA), a fascia of a back of the hand, is continuation of a fascia of a forearm, covers sinews of razgibatel of fingers with their synovial vaginas; begins from a retinaculum of sinews of extensor muscles, passes to the back of fingers, growing together with capsules of metacarpophalangeal joints. On each side it is spliced with a periosteum of the fifth and second metacarpal bones.
54. Dorsalis pedis (PNA, JNA, BNA), a fascia of the back of foot, is continuation of a fascia of a shin; the lower utserzhivatel of sinews of extensor muscles forms, covers sinews of muscles-time-gibateley together with their synovial vaginas and forms a fascial case for short razgibatel of fingers and a thumb and a fascial vagina of a back neurovascular bunch of foot.
Fig. 6 — 8. Fascia of a trunk of a neck and shoulder girdle. Fig. 6. An anterior aspect (at the left superficial a fascia and m. pectoralis major are removed); 1 — platysma; 2 — f. pectoralis; 3 — f. deltoidea; 4 — f. brachii; 5 — f. abdominis superficialis; 6 — f. clavipectoralis. Fig., 7. Back view: 1 — f. infraspinata; 2 — f. thoracolumbalis; 3 — f. glutea. Fig. 8. Back view (superficial muscles of a back Uda
of Lena); 1 — f. michae; 2 — f. supraspinata; 3 — f. infraspinata; 4 — f. serrata; 5 — f, thoracolumbalis; 6 —
lamina profunda fasciae thoracolumbalis; 7 — f. glutea.
55. Endoabdominalis, the intra belly fascia of a stomach, covers from within a muscle, being a part of all its walls; in face -
Fig. 9. Fascia of a front wall of a breast and stomach (look from within): 1 — f. endothora-cica; 2 — f. transversalis; 3 — f, phrenico-pleuralis.
tion allocate the sites corresponding to muscles, to-rye it covers.
56. Endocervicalis, an internal fascia of a neck (across Shevkunenko); has parietal and visceral leaves; the visceral layer surrounds interiors of a neck, parietal — prilezhit to a back wall of a vagina of muscles below a hypoglossal bone and forms a vagina of the main neurovascular bunch of a neck.
57. Endogastrica, an intra celiac fascia, see Transversalis.
58. Endopelvina (BNA), a synonym of intrapel-vina (JNA), an intra pelvic fascia, see Pelvis parietalis.
59. Endothoracica (PNA, JNA, BNA), the synonym of thoracica interna, an intrathoracic fascia, covers from within a wall of a chest cavity; internal intercostal muscles, a cross muscle of a breast, subcostal muscles, edges, prilezhit directly to a costal pleura, proceeds in a prevertebral plate of a cervical fascia.
60. Femoralis, a femoral fascia, see Lata.
61. Glutea, buttock fascia; begins from a sacrum and an ileal crest, covers an outer surface of a big gluteus, giving its shoots dividing muscle bundles to depth; in front and below passes into a wide fascia of a hip.
62. Iliaca (PNA, BNA), the synonym of ilica (JNA), an ileal fascia, covers an ileal pole; it is attached to a side surface of bodies of lumbar vertebrae. to an internal lip of an ileal crest and the arc-shaped line, forms an iliopectineal arch; above passes into an intra belly fascia, and below — into a wide fascia of a hip.
63. Ilica (JNA). ileal fascia, see Iliaca.
64. Iliopectinea (BNA), an iliopectineal fascia, is a part of a deep plate of a wide fascia of a hip; on a hip covers the pole of the same name; covers iliolumbar and edge we are shets.
65. Infra spinam (JNA), a band fascia, see Infraspinata.
66. Infraspinata (BNA), synonym of infra spinam (JNA), podostny fascia; has character of an aponeurosis, it is attached to edges of a podostny pole of a shovel, forms a vagina of the muscle of the same name and a small round muscle.
67. Interossea dorsalis et palmaris, interosseous back and palmar fascia; covers back and palmar interosseous muscles of a brush, connecting to a periosteum of metacarpal bones.
68. Interossea dorsalis et plantaris, interosseous back and bottom fascia; covers bottom and back interosseous muscles of foot, connects to a periosteum of plusnevy bones.
Fig. 10. Fascia of retroperitoneal space (a horizontal cut through lumbar area, are designated by a solid line a fascia): 1 — f. retroperitonealis;
2 — f. praerenalis; 3 — f. retrorenalis,
Fig. 11. Fascia of outside men's generative organs (anterior aspect): 1 — f. penis; 2 — f. spermatica interna; 3 — testis; 4 — skin of a scrotum; 5 — f. cremasterica.
69. Intrapelvina (JNA), an intra pelvic fascia, see Pelvis parietalis.
70. Ischioprostatica, a sciatic and prostatic fascia, see Diaphragmatis urogenitalis inferior.
71. Lacertus fibrosus, fibrous (tendinous) stretching, see Aponeurosis musculi bicipitis brachii.
72. Lamina cribriformis fossae ovalis (JNA), a trellised plate of an oval pole, see Crib rosa.
73. Lamina cribrosa fasciae latae, a trellised plate of a wide fascia, see Cribrosa.
74. Lamina cribrosa fasciae transversa-lis, a trellised plate of a cross fascia, see Septum femorale.
75. Lamina pharyngobasilaris (JNA), a pharyngeal and basilar plate, see Pharyngobasilaris.
76. Lamina pretrachealis fasciae cervicalis (PNA), synonym: aponeurosis omoclavicu-Jaris (Richet), colli media (JNA), lamina profunda fasciae colli propriae, prebang-alnaya a plate of a cervical fascia (across Shev-kunenko), a deep leaf of a fascia of a neck, a scapularclavicular aponeurosis, or Richet's sail; it is tense between a hypoglossal bone, scapular and hypoglossal muscles, a back surface of clavicles and handles of a breast; has the form of a trapeze, forms a vagina of the muscles lying below a hypoglossal bone.
Fig. 12 — 13. Fascia of a crotch of the man. Fig. 12. A ventral view (on the right a fascia are removed). 1 — f. penis; 2 — f. diaphragmatis urogenitalis inferior; 3 — f. diaphragmatis pelvis inferior; 4 — anus. Fig. 13. A ventral view (superficial a fascia and a muscle are removed): 1 — f. diaphragmatis urogenitalis inferior; 2 — anus; z — urethra; 4 — aa. dorsa-les penis; 5 — v. dorsalis penis.
77. Lamina prevertebralis fasciae cervicalis (PNA), synonym: colli profunda (praever-tebralis) (JNA), praevertebralis, predpozvo-night plate of a cervical fascia: covers in front deep group of muscles, forming for them together with a periosteum of vertebrae osteofibrous vaginas; above reaches a base of skull, below passes into an intrathoracic fascia, and from sides proceeds on scalenes.
78. Lamina profunda fasciae colli propriae, deep plate of own fascia of a neck, see Lamina pretrachealis fasciae cervicalis.
79. Lamina profunda fasciae thoraco-lumbalis, a deep plate of a thoracolumbar fascia, see Thoracolumbalis.
80. Lamina superficialis fasciae cervicalis (PNA), synonym: colli superficialis (JNA), lamina superficialis fasciae colli propriae, a superficial plate of a cervical fascia (across Shevkunenko); covers muscles of front and lateral areas of a neck and passes into the back area of a neck, forming a vagina for a trapezoid muscle, forms also the capsule podnizhnechelyust-ache glands and a vagina grudino - a clavicular and mastoidal muscle; it is below attached to a front surface of clavicles and handles of a breast.
81. Lamina superficialis fasciae colli propriae, a superficial plate of own fascia of a neck (across Shevkunenko), see Lamina superficialis fasciae cervicalis.
82. Lata (PNA, JNA, BNA), synonym: aponeurosis femoralis, lata femoris, wide fascia of a hip; begins from an inguinal sheaf and an ileal crest, below passes into a fascia of a shin and a subnodal fascia, being partially attached to bone ledges in the field of a knee joint and to the lateral bay of the rough line; one of the thickest fastion; on a medial surface it is developed more weakly, lateral-but forms an ileal and tibial path; gives medial and lateral intermuscular partitions, forms vaginas of muscles of a hip; in an upper part of a hip it is split on a deep and superficial leaf.
83. Lata femoris, a wide fascia of a hip, see Lata.
84. Lateralis prostatae, a lateral fascia of a prostate, see Diaphragmatis urogenitalis superior.
85. Ligamentum pelvioprostaticum cap-sulare, a capsular tazovo-prostatic sheaf, see Prostatae.
86. Ligamentum puboischiadicum prostatae, a prostatic pubic and sciatic sheaf, see Diaphragmatis urogenitalis superior.
87. Linguae, fascia of language; is located under a mucous membrane of language, densely growing together with it and is deeper the located muscles.
88. Lumbodorsalis (JNA, BNA), a lumbar and back fascia, see Thoracolumbalis.
89. Macalisteri, McAlister's fascia, see
Diaphragmatis urogenitalis inferiors 90. Masseterica (PNA, JNA), synonym of paro-tideomasseterica (BNA), chewing fascia; covers a masseter, passes into a fascia of a parotid gland.
91. Membrana perinei, a membrane of a crotch, see Diaphragmatis urogenitalis inferior.
92. Membrana pharyngobasilaris, a glotoch-but-basilar membrane, see Pharyngobasilaris.
93. Membrana cribriformis, a trellised membrane, see Cribrosa.
94. Membrana suprapleuralis, nadplev-ralny membrane; is a part of an intrathoracic fascia; is located between an inner surface of a thorax and a parietal pleura.
95. Musculi obturatoris interni (JNA), a fascia of an internal locking muscle, see Obturatoria.
96. Musculi transversi, a fascia of a cross muscle, see Transversalis.
97. Nuchae (PNA, JNA, BNA), nuchal fascia; is continuation of a superficial plate of a cervical fascia; is located in back area of a neck; covers trapezoid and rhomboid muscles, forming for them vaginas; passes into a fascia of a back.
98. Obturatoria (PNA, BNA), synonym of musculi obturatoris interni (JNA), locking fascia; is a part of the parietal pelvic fascia covering an internal locking muscle.
99. Orbitales, fascia of an eye-socket; the collective name of connective tissue formations of an eye-socket including a periosteum of an eye-socket (periorbita), an orbital partition (septum orbitale), muscular a fascia and a vagina of an eyeglobe (vagina bulbi).
100. Parotidea (PNA), synonym of parotideo-masseterica (BNA), fascia of a parotid gland; is continuation of a chewing fascia; forms the capsule of a parotid gland; from above it is fixed on a zygoma, behind — on a mastoid and a cartilage of an ear; passes below into a cervical fascia.
101. Parotideomasseterica, an okoloushnozhevatelny fascia, see Masseterica, Parotidea.
102. Pectinea (JNA, BNA), synonym of iliopec-tinea, crested fascia; is a deep plate of the wide fascia of a hip covering an iliopectineal pole and covering iliolumbar and edge muscles; its medial part is attached to a comb of a pubic bone, lateral — to an inguinal sheaf; below connects to a superficial plate of a wide fascia.
103. Pectoralis (PNA, BNA), synonym of pectoralis superficialis (JNA), chest fascia; covers an outer surface of a big pectoral muscle, at bottom edge of a small pectoral muscle merges with a clavicular and chest fascia (fascia clavipectora-Iis, a synonym of pectoralis profunda); proceeds in a fascia of the neighboring areas.
104. Pectoralis superficialis, a superficial chest fascia, see Pectoralis.
105. Pelvis (PNA, JNA. BNA), pelvic fascia; is continuation inside -
Fig. 14 — 16. Fascia of a basin. Fig. 14. Basin men (dorsal view; on the right a fascia are removed); 1 — f. pelvis parietalis; 2 — f. diaphragmatis pelvis superior; s — f. obturatoria; 4 — f. diaphragmatis urogenitalis superior; 5 — urethra; 6 — rectum. Fig. 15. Basin men (on a section): 1 — f. pelvis visceralis; 2 — f. pelvis parietalis; z — f. diaphragmatis pelvis superior; 4 — f. obturatoria; 5 — f. diaphragmatis pelvis inferior; 6 — f. prostatae; 7 — urethra; 8 — prostata; 9 — vesica urinaria. Fig. 16. Basin in a sagittal cut (the right side, a look from within): 1 — f. obturatoria; 2 — f. psoica; 3 — f. iliaca.
a belly fascia in a cavity of a small pelvis; it is subdivided into the parietal fascia of a basin (fascia pelvis parietalis) and a visceral fascia of a basin (fascia pelvis visceralis) which are growing together among themselves in places of formation of medial tendinous arches.
106. Pelvis parietalis (PNA), synonym: endo-pelvina (BNA), intrapelvina (JNA), Tyr-relli, parietal fascia of a basin; covers walls of a basin, being fixed at a pubic symphysis and on a pelvic surface of a sacrum; on sidewalls of a basin forms tendinous arches of a fascia of a basin and it is split on the lateral part forming a locking fascia, and the medial, creating upper fascia of a diaphragm of a basin, edges covers the muscle lifting an anus; connects to a visceral fascia of a basin.
107. Pelvis visceralis (PNA), visceral fascia of a basin; is a part of a fascia of a basin; surrounds a rectum, a bladder and other bodies of a small pelvis; connects to a parietal fascia of a basin.
108. Penis (JNA, BNA), a fascia of a penis, see Penis profunda et superficialis.
Penis profunda et superficialis (PNA), synonym of penis (JNA, BNA), deep and superficial fascia of a penis; are continuation of a superficial fascia of a stomach; in a superficial plate smooth muscle cells and rykhlo the collagenic fibers located diversely meet; the deep plate is expressed better and surrounds cavernous and spongy bodies of a penis.
110. Perinealis, a perineal fascia, see Diaphragmatis urogenitalis inferior.
111. Perinei propria, own fascia of a crotch; is continuation of a buttock fascia; covers all muscles of area, comes into all deepenings between them; kpered reaches a superficial cross muscle of a crotch where is divided into three plates: superficial proceeds in a fascia of a penis, average and deep cover an urinogenital diaphragm.
112. Perinei profunda propria, own deep fascia of a crotch, see Diaphragmatis urogenitalis superior.
FROM. Pharyngo basi laris (PNA, BNA), synonym: aponeurosis pharyngis, aponeurosis pharyngobasilaris, lamina pharyngobasila-ris (JNA), membrana pharyngobasilaris, tunica pharyngobasilaris, glotochno-bazi-
lyarny fascia; the upper reinforced part of a fibrous cover of a throat beginning from an outside base of skull.
114. Pharyngobuccinatoria (JNA), a pharyngeal and buccal fascia, see Buccopharyngea.
115. Phrenicopleuralis (PNA), phrenic and pleural fascia; is a part of an intrathoracic fascia; covers an upper surface of a diaphragm, prilezhit to a diaphragmal pleura.
116. Poplitea, subnodal fascia; is continuation of a wide fascia of a hip, below passes into a fascia of a shin; covers a popliteal space; the partitions which are attached to lateral and medial lips of the rough line on a femur depart from its inner surface, forms a vagina of subnodal vessels.
Fig. 17 — 18. Fascia of an upper extremity. Fig. 17. Anterior aspect; 1 — f. axillaris; 2 — f. brachii; z — aponeurosis musculi bicipitis brachii; 4 — f. antebrachii; 5 — aponeurosis palmaris; 6 — f. deltoidea. Fig. 18. Forearm and brush (back view): 1 — f. antebrachii; 2 — f. dorsalis manus.
117. Praerenalis, prerenal fascia; is a part of a retroperitoneal fascia; covers in front a kidney, an adrenal gland and the beginning of an ureter, from above and lateralno connects to a pozadipochechny fascia, medially comes over to the opposite side, connecting to vaginas of a ventral aorta and lower vena cava; below prerenal and pozadipochechny a fascia form crossing points at the lower pole of a kidney.
118. Proevertebralis, a prevertebral fascia, see Lamina prevertebralis fasciae cervicalis.
119. Propria abdominis, own fascia of a stomach; is continuation of a fascia of a breast; covers an outside oblique muscle of a stomach; it is below attached to an inguinal sheaf.
120. Propria recti (Gerota), own fascia of a rectum (Gerot), covers a rectum where it is not covered with a peritoneum; connects a pelvic surface of a sacrum to a rectum.
121. Propria Velpeau, own fascia of Velpo, see Subperitonealis.
122. Prostatae (PNA, BNA), synonym: capsula prostatae (JNA), ligamentum pelvio-prostaticum capsulare, fascia of a prostate, or capsule of a prostate; represents the part of a visceral fascia of a basin surrounding a prostate and forming it the capsule.
123. Psoatica, a fascia of a lumbar muscle, see Psoica.
124. Psoica (JNA), fascia of a lumbar muscle; is a part of an intra belly fascia; covers big and small lumbar muscles, passes into an ileal fascia and a fascia of a square muscle.
125. Pyrogovi, Pirogov's fascia, see Aponeurosis musculi bicipitis brachii.
126. Rectovaginalis, a rectovaginal fascia, see Septum rectova-ginale.
127. Rectovesical is, a rectovesical fascia, see Septum rectovesicale.
128. Renalis, fascia of a kidney; is a part of a retroperitoneal fascia; covers a kidney in front and behind, forming its outside capsule.
129. Retroperitonealis. retroperitoneal fascia; begins in the place of transition of a peritoneum from a sidewall of an abdominal cavity to back; at the outer edge of a kidney it is split on two leaves — fascia praerenalis u fascia retrorenalis forming a fascial renal capsule; above about -
it dolzhatsya on a lower surface of a diaphragm, below passes into cellulose of a small pelvis.
130. Retrorenalis, pozadipochechny fascia; is a part of a retroperitoneal fascia; covers a back surface of a kidney together with its adipose capsule; above and lateralno connects to a prerenal fascia; medially, at a backbone, it is interwoven into a vagina of large vessels; at the lower pole of a kidney forms crossing points with a prerenal fascia.
131. Salpingopharyngea (Schwalbe), pipe and pharyngeal fascia (Shvalbe); is a part of a webby plate eustachian (acoustical, T.) pipes.
132. Septum anuli femoralis (JNA), a partition of a femoral ring, see Septum fernorale.
133. Septum femorale (PNA), synonym: annuli cruralis, lamina cribrosa fasciae transversalis, septum anuli femoralis (JNA), septum femorale (Cloqueti) (BNA), femoral partition; the site of a cross fascia in the field of a deep ring of the femoral channel; it is penetrated by openings, through to-rye pass limf, vessels.
134. Septum femorale (Cloqueti), a femoral partition (Shred), see Septum femorale.
135. Septum orbitale (PNA, JNA, BNA), orbital partition; the connective tissue plate which is attached to a periosteum of edge of an eye-socket and cartilages a century. On an upper eyelid connects to an aponeurosis of the muscle raising an upper eyelid, on a lower eyelid passes to a front surface of his cartilage.
136. Septum rectovaginale (PNA), a synonym of rectovaginalis, a rectovaginal partition, is located in a small basin between a rectum and a bladder and a vagina (at women); begins from a bottom of a peritoneal bag and comes to an end in cellulose of a crotch.
137. Septum rectovesicale (PNA), synonym: aponeurosis Denonvilliers, rectovesicalis, rectovesical partition; it is located in a small basin between a rectum and a bladder and a prostate gland (at men). Begins from a bottom of a peritoneal bag and comes to an end at cellulose of a crotch.,
138. Serrata, gear fascia; is located on spin between trapezoid, rhomboid and the broadest muscle of a back, on the one hand, and the muscle straightening a backbone, on the other hand.
139. Spermatica externa (PNA), outside seed fascia; is continuation of a superficial fascia of a stomach; is located under a dartos of a scrotum.
140. Spermatica interna (PNA), synonym: tunica vaginalis communis (testis et funiculi spermatici) (BNA), tunica vaginalis testis et funiculi spermatici (JNA), internal seed fascia; is continuation of a cross fascia of a stomach; covers a seed cord, a small egg and its appendage; is located between the muscle lifting a small egg and a vulval cover.
141. Subcutanea, a hypodermic fascia see Superficialis.
142. Subperitonealis (PNA), synonym: propria Velpeau, tela subserosa peritonei, subperitoneal fascia; is located under a parietal peritoneum, it is especially well developed in pubic area.
143. Subpubica, a subpubic fascia, see Diaphragmatis urogenitalis superior.
144. Subscapularis (JNA, BNA), infrascapular fascia; covers the muscle of the same name; it is expressed poorly. Passes in a fascia of the neighboring areas.
145. Superficialis (BNA), synonym of subcutanea, superficial fascia; it is located directly under skin in hypodermic cellulose.
146. Superficialis colli, a superficial fascia of a neck (across Shevkunenko); is a part of a superficial fascia of a body; forms a vagina for a hypodermic muscle of a neck.
147. Superficialis perinei (PNA, BNA), superficial fascia of a crotch; is a part of a superficial fascia of a body; it is expressed poorly.
148. Supra spinam (JNA), a supraspinal fascia, see Supraspinata.
149. Supraspinata (BNA), synonym: supra spinam (JNA), supraspinal fascia; is located within a nadoyetny hole of a shovel, covering the muscle of the same name.
150. Tela subserosa peritonei, a subserosal basis of a peritoneum, see Subperitonealis.
151. Temporalis (PNA, JNA, BNA), synonym of aponeurosis temporalis, temporal fascia; the thick fibrous plate covering the muscle of the same name; begins from the upper temporal line, at a zygoma shares on' superficial and deep plates, to-rye are attached to outside and internal edges of a zygoma.
152. Thoracica (PNA), chest fascia; the connective tissue plate covering outside intercostal muscles and edges.
Fig. 19 — 22. Fascia of the lower extremity. Fig. 19. Hip (anterior aspect): 1 — f. cribrosa; 2 — f. lata. Fig. 20. Rump and hip (back view): 1 — f. glutea;
2 — lata; 3 — f. poplitea. Fig. 21. Shin and foot (anterior aspect): 1 — f. cruris; 2 — of dorsalis pedis. Fig. 22. Bottom party of foot: aponeurosis plantaris
(it is specified by an arrow).
153. Thoracica interna, an internal chest fascia, see Endothoracica.
154. Thoracolumbalis (PNA), synonym: aponeurosis lumbodorsalis, lumbodorsalis (JNA, BNA), thoracolumbar fascia; is located in a back, covering the muscle straightening a backbone; in it distinguish two plates: front, or deep (lamina profunda, synonym of aponeurosis vertebralis), and superficial (lamina superficialis); the superficial plate begins from acanthas of chest and lumbar vertebrae, a sacrum, below from an ileal crest, and lateralno — from corners of edges; the deep plate separates the muscle straightening a backbone from a square muscle of a waist; it is located between the XII edge, lumbar vertebrae, being attached to their cross shoots, and an ileal crest; both plates connect at lateral edge of the muscle straightening a backbone forming her vagina; the superficial plate is thickened at the place of the beginning of the broadest muscle of a back and the lower back gear muscle.
155. Transversa, a cross fascia, see Transversalis,
156. Transversalis (PNA, JNA, BNA), synonym: abdominis interna profunda, abdominis profunda, endogastrica, musculi transversi, transversa, cross fascia; is a part of an intra belly fascia; covers a cross muscle of a stomach; npoj dolzhatsya on sidewalls of an abdominal cavity.
157. Triangularis urethrae, a triangular fascia of an urethra, see, Diaphragmatis urogenitalis superior.
158. Tunica pharyngobasilaris, a glotochnobazilyarny cover, see Pharyngobasilaris.
159. Tunica vaginalis communis (testis et funiculi spermatici) (BNA), the general vulval cover (a small egg and a seed cord), see Spermatica interna.
160. Tunica vaginalis testis et funiculi spermatici (JNA), a vulval cover of a small egg and a seed cord, see
Sperma-161. Tyrrelli, Tirrell's fascia, see, Pelvis parietalis.
162. Umbilicalis, пупочная^ fascia; is a part of an intra belly fascia; dense plate with the poperechnoidushchy fibers which are interwoven into a back wall of a vagina of a direct muscle of a stomach; in one cases closes an umbilical ring completely, in others — at all does not close it, coming to an end above; it is quite often developed poorly and has no cross fibers.
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