From Big Medical Encyclopedia

FARINGOSKOPIYa (Greek pharynx, pharyngos of a drink + skopeo to consider, investigate) — a method of visual examination of a throat.

T. make at artificial lighting by means of special tools, and also a dressing material. The doctor and investigated sit against each other. A little table with tools and a light source are to the right of the patient. By means of a frontal mirror examine serially all three parts of a pharyngeal cavity (see); upper (nasal part, T.; pars nasalis) — an epifaringoskopiya, average (an oral part, T.; pars oralis) — a mezofaringoskopiya and lower (a guttural part, T.; pars 1a-ryngea) — a gipofaringoskopiya.

Are necessary for an epifaringoskopiya the pallet and a nasopharyngeal mirror with a diameter from 5 to 10 mm (depending on the age inspected). For carrying out survey investigated opens a mouth and breathes a nose that the soft palate freely hanged down and did not concern a back wall of a throat. The raised gag reflex needs to be suppressed by an insu-flyatszha or greasing of a mucous membrane of a back wall of a throat, a root and a back of the tongue anesthetics: children after three years have 3% solution of cocaine or 1 — 2% solution of xylocainum, adults have 5% solution of cocaine or 3% solution of Dicainum. The pallet, to-ry the doctor holds in the left hand, press a back of the tongue. The nasopharyngeal mirror warmed on a spirit-lamp or in hot water is taken in the right hand as a writing feather, a specular surface up, and it is careful, without touching a root of language, enter for a palatine velum so that light from a frontal mirror was reflected in a nasopharynx. Carefully

Fig. Diagrammatic representation гипофа^ ringoyekopiya: the curved probe (1) is entered - into a throat and the throat (4) is taken away by pressure upon its front wall (3) kpered; (2) steels are available to survey by means of a guttural mirror guttural department of a throat (5) and an entrance to a gullet.

turning a mirror in different directions, light not only a vault of the farynx, but a lobby and sidewalls of a nasopharynx, receiving their reflection in a mirror. In modern a wedge, practice use the equipment with fiber light guides allowing more fully and at good lighting to examine a nasopharynx.

At an epifaringoskopiya on an upper wall of a nasopharynx normal it is possible to see glotochnuto an almond or to reveal symptoms of this or that disease, napr, brain hernia, a tumor, etc. On sidewalls of a nasopharynx openings of Eustachian tubes are visible (an acoustical pipe, T.), limited in front and behind to rollers of a mucous membrane. Behind the back roller the pharyngeal pocket (a rozenmyullerovsky pole) is located. Hoapa, share, the back ends of the lower and average nasal sinks are in front visible. At a polypostural form of antritis it is possible to see a choanal polyp (see Rinoskopiya).

At a mezofaringoskopiya the doctor takes in the left hand the pallet, and his right hand lies on the head of investigated and fixes it. The pallet is put on front two thirds of language of the patient and is careful, the back of the tongue otdavlivatsya slowly from top to bottom. Rough, sharp pressing on language can cause vomiting. At a mezofaringoskopiya examine a soft palate, its mobility, a uvula, palatal handles, palatine tonsils, back and sidewalls of a throat, a root of language; pay attention to color of a mucous membrane of a throat, a surface smoothness of a back wall of a throat, existence of accumulations of an adenoid tissue in the form of granules or side rollers; reveal such diseases and patol. formations of this department of a throat as tumors, abscesses, natechnik, foreign bodys, etc.

Gipofaringoskopiya (fig.) make by means of a guttural mirror with a diameter of 10 —15—25 of mm (see Laringoskopiya). In a mirror at first the root of language, a pole of an epiglottis, then free edge of an epiglottis, pear-shaped pockets, back and sidewalls of a guttural part of a throat is visible. Survey of the bottom of a throat as at children, and adults is carried out also at a direct laringoskopiya (see).

At observance of the technology of carrying out F. complications, as a rule, are not observed.

Bibliography: The multivolume guide to otorhinolaryngology, under the editorship of A. G. Likhachev, t. 1, page 472, M., 1960.

I. L. Kruchinina.