FARFORO-FAYaNSOVOE PRODUCTION, occupational health, T. - t. the item — an industry on production of porcelain, faience and other stonewares of different function.
Raw materials in F. - t. items serve clay, quartz, feldspar, lime and other materials. The manufacturing techniques include the following consecutive operations: preparation
of raw materials, preparation of weight, glaze, shliker (mix of silicates with water), formation and drying, roasting, glass glazing, sorting, grinding, coloring, transportation and warehousing of products.
In modern F. - t. items processes are considerably mechanized, implemented conveyor, product and automatic transfer lines, dry processes of a mandrel and cleaning of products are replaced wet, instead of horns tunnel furnaces, for formation of products — forms from polyvinylchloride instead of plaster are used.
The major harmful factor in service conditions F. - t. the item is dust (see) with a high degree of dispersion that is caused by the nature of technological processes — small grind of stony materials, cleaning and blowing of semi-finished products and .gotovy products, grinding, etc. Content of dust in air of a working zone can be considerable. The greatest number of dust is allocated during the transportation. dosage and loading of loose materials, grinding, crushing, cleaning, pressing. Special value has high content in dust of the raw and processed materials of free silicon dioxide (to 70%). Dust of ceramics, lead, vapors of hydrocarbons of a fatty series can arrive on air Wednesday at preparation and putting glaze.
Working conditions in forming workshops are characterized by high levels of noise (see) and an adverse microclimate: elevated
temperature of air in combination with its small mobility and high relative humidity (see Vlazhn an awn, Mikroklimagp).
The microclimate in workplaces depends both on a condition of fresh air, and on secondary sources of heat (the cooling-down products, etc.). High temperature of air and influence of radiant heat are observed in workshops of the first and reheating, at installation kapsul in the mine furnace and other operations. At working such professions as stavilytsik and vybirshchik, by the end of change fervescence can be observed. During the pressing levels of sound pressure can sometimes exceed admissible, reaching 95 dB. On sites of work of okhlystov-shchitsa, glaziers, sorters, during the crushing and a grinding a number of operations is carried out in forced position of a body and standing, many of them — manually. During the coloring volatile components of paints come to air of a working zone, and at production of ceramics — volatile components epoxy, polyvinyl chloride, a fenolforma of ldegidny pitches, naphthenic to - t, svintsovomargantsevy salts, hydrocarbons.
Long influence of the increased concentration of the finely divided dust containing free silicon dioxide can lead to development in working separate professions of specific defeats of a respiratory organs, first of all such diseases of a dust etiology as a silicosis (see), a tuberculosilicosis (see Tuberculosis of a respiratory organs), a pneumoconiosis from influence of ceramic dust (see the Pneumoconiosis), a mechanic bronchitis (see). Cases of a pneumoconiosis at the enterprises F. - t. items in a crust, time meet seldom, and diseases proceed rather favorably. Feature of a pneumoconiosis from influence of ceramic dust is scarcity of objective and subjective symptomatology; subatrophic and atrophic processes in upper respiratory tracts are found in a considerable part of patients. Skin diseases occur at working forming workshops owing to contact of hands with water, a soap and kerosene emulsion and alkaline dust, to-rye often have allergic character (see Dermatitis). At women of a number of professions in connection with a forced working pose, rise and transfer of weights can arise a gine-stake. diseases to be observed disturbances during pregnancy.
Improvement of working conditions in F. - t. the item is reached by improvement of technology and the equipment, implementation of automatic transfer lines of processing of raw materials with distance steering, sealing of the raising dust processes and aspiration of a polluted air,
heat insulation of hot surfaces, use of positive-pressure ventilation (see) and aerations (see). Use of individual protection equipment of a respiratory organs (see Respirators), hearing (see Anti-noise), integuments is important.
Medico-preventive actions shall include preliminary and periodic medical examinations (see. Medical examination), medical examination (see) etc. Contraindications to employment to workshops with pylevydeleniye are diseases of upper respiratory tracts and bronchial tubes, the curvature of a nasal partition complicating nasal breath, atrophic nasopharyngites, laryngitis, hron. inflammatory processes of adnexal bosoms of a nose, bronchial asthma, bronchoectatic disease, emphysema, pneumosclerosis. In workshops with an adverse microclimate it is contraindicated to persons to work with organic diseases of c. N of page, the peptic ulcer expressed by endocrine and vegetative disturbances.
Bibliography: D at p l I am a N to and S. A N. Hygienic assessment of a dust factor of the production environment of the porcelain plant, Gigabyte. and dignity., No. 10, page 83, 1981;
Prigarina F. A. A pneumoconiosis at the modern porcelain enterprises, the Gigabyte. work and the prof. having got sick., No. 10, page 1, 1972; Shevchenko A. M, etc. The hygienic characteristic of working conditions and incidence of workers of electro-ceramic production, in book: Gigabyte. work, under the editorship of Yu. I. Kundiyev, century 15, page 51, Kiev, 1979. A. A. Kasparov.