From Big Medical Encyclopedia

FALRYo Shang (Falret Jean Pierre, 1794 — 1870) is the French psychiatrist, the member of National academy of medicine of France, the pupil F. Pina-la Zh. Esquirolya.

Studied medicine in Monggelye.

Since 1811 worked in Paris in private psychiatric clinic of Zh. Eskirol; from 1821 to 1841 the doctor of clinic Salpetriyer, then till 1867 the doctor of an insane hospital Rambyuto.

Zh. Falre the first in the French psychiatry, relying on the principles developed by Zh. Eskirol

studied mental diseases in dynamics, for a long time watching patients both in the conditions of hospital, and out of it. It showed that any mental disease regardless of nosological accessory passes a number of stages in the development: in an initial stage along with the erased mental disorders the various somatic disturbances preventing statement of the correct diagnosis are observed; in the period of development of the first manifest symptoms the disease is most often shown by affective and crazy frustration; further the period of a full course of a disease which is replaced by either recovery, or transition in hron follows. a state with stereotypification a wedge, pictures and manifestation usually symptoms of mental weakness. Studying of a course of psychoses allowed Zh. Falre to raise a question of creation of «natural classification of mental diseases». In particular, it showed that allocated. Eskirol as independent diseases the mania and melancholy quite often represent various forms of one disease, to-ruyu it called circular psychosis (see. Maniac-depressive psychosis). It was pokazave also, as other diseases allocated with Zh. Eskirol — a monomania, dementia — are only stages of development of different diseases. The dynamic method of a research of mental diseases developed by Zh. Falre in the main corresponded

to A. Trusso's method, to-ry it applied in clinic of internal diseases.

Zh. Falre belongs the first description of the sequence of development of chronic crazy psychoses regardless of the maintenance of the crazy ideas defining them. It entered the term «crystallization of nonsense», the stationary form of a general paralysis is allocated and the vozkhmozhnost of emergence is shown at it the long remissions imitating in some cases recovery. It the first otkhmetit the fact that psychoses at persons with hereditary burdeness, napr, the alternating insanity, come to an end with recovery much more often, than psychoses at persons without hereditary burdening. Paying much attention to the forecast of mental diseases, he made a row a wedge, the conclusions which did not lose the value so far.

Zh. Falre possesses an initiative of creation in Rambyuto of special department for the recovering patients. In the works he proved need of the subsequent overseeing by them and their treatments for the purpose of the prevention of a recurrence of a disease. Zh. Falre was engaged in development of questions of a deontology in psychiatry and the principles of rehabilitation of mentally sick. Among Zh. Falre's pupils there is JIacer (E. Ch. Lasegue), B. Morel, etc.

Works: Le<? ons cliniques de of m£decine mentale, faites a l’hospice de la Salpetriere, P., 1854; Des maladies mentales et des asiles of d'alien£s, P., 1864.

Bibliography: Kannabikh Yu. V.

History of psychiatry, page 201, L., 1928; Semelaigne R. Les Grands alienistes fran^ais, t. 1, p. 279, P., 1894.

H. G. Shumsky.