From Big Medical Encyclopedia

FACTORY MEDICINE — a form of medical service of factory and mining workers in pre-revolutionary Russia. T. - h. m arose along with territorial medicine in the 2nd half of 19 century when as a result of the accruing labor movement the government adopted the special resolution (1866) obliging to arrange businessmen-tsy at the enterprises for hospitalization of sick workers laws on factory inspection (1882 — 1897) and on responsibility of businessmen in case of accidents on production (1903) were issued. For F. - h. m material dependence of the doctor on plant management is characteristic, a cut paid it a salary. Legislative formulations were indistinct (e.g., the special resolution of 1866 obliged owners to build-tsy of calculation 1 bed on 100 workers, but allowed to be limited only to assignment and the equipment of the room). Most of businessmen ignored these instructions: later quarter of the century it turned out that only V3 of factories, on to-rye extended their action, fulfilled relevant requirements. In 1909 in Moscow the I All-Russian congress of factory doctors took place, in the working group to-rogo social democrats were in the majority.

Under the law on social insurance (1912) hospital cash desks were created, on to-rye implementation of insurance was assigned to a case of a disease insured, and sometimes and members of his family. However by insurance it was captured only about lU of all industrial workers, the sick pay was given only from the 3rd or 4th day of a disease. Cash desks started the organization of out-patient clinics, but by their 1917 was only 10 in Russia. Emphasizing insignificant practical results of activity of hospital cash desks and impossibility of their effective work in the conditions of the existing system, the Bolshevik party at the same time supported them as one of forms of the legal organization of working class. Along with it the party fought for radical improvement of medical service of workers; questions of medical providing workers were included in the RSDRP Program. Only after Great October socialist revolution questions of health protection of workers became the most important aspect of policy of the state in the field of health care (see Health care, the Communist Party of the Soviet Union).