FABRIC — morfofunktsionalny system of specifically differentiated cells, and also noncellular structures combined on the basis of a community of a structure, function and (or) an origin.
The concept «fabric» as set of homogeneous elements arose long before implementation of microscopic methods of a research (see). However objective analysis of a structure of T. an organism and their scientific classification became possible only after development and improvement of the microscopic equipment (see. Microscope ).
In 1839 T. Shvann for the first time suggested to subdivide T. on the basis of their microscopic structure. In the middle of 19 century R. Kelliker (1852) and Leydig (F. Leydig, 1857) proved division of T. on epithelial (see. Epithelial fabric ), connecting (see. Connecting fabric ), muscular (see. Muscular tissue ) and nervous (see. Nervous tissue ). In spite of the fact that in this classification there was no uniform principle (the first two groups are allocated on structural signs, and two others — on functional), evolutionary researches of I. I. Mechnikov, A. A. Zavarzina and his schools confirmed validity of similar division of T., and this classification in the basis remained to a crust, time.
Within each group T. there are versions (characteristic of certain human organs or animal species), to-rye include the cellular types differing on genesis, the direction and level of a differentiation of cells (see. Fabric determination ).
The epithelial fabric developing from all germinal leaves is morphologically characterized by close association of cells in layers (a cover epithelium) or in compact epithelial bodies (glands). Epithelial fabric performs protective function, and also functions of absorption, secretion of biologically active agents, excretion.
Connecting fabric develops from mesenchymas (see). Feature of a structure of connecting fabric is availability of the intercellular (intermediate) substance consisting of fibers and amorphous main substance (see. Intercellular substance). Usually carry to connecting fabric blood (see) and a lymph (see), actually connecting fabric, connecting fabric with special properties (see. Fatty tissue, Reticular fabric) and skeletal connecting fabrics — cartilaginous (see. Cartilaginous tissue ) and bone (see. Bone ). Considering physical properties of blood, its structural and genetic features (dissociation of sources of regeneration of uniform elements and intercellular substance — plasma, etc.), nek-ry histologists consider lawful to emit blood in an independent type of T. The main functions of all kinds of connecting fabric (fabrics of internal environment, basic and trophic fabrics) are trophic, plastic, protective, mechanical and basic functions.
Muscular tissue develops generally from a mesenchyma (smooth, or neischerchenny, muscular T.) and mesoderms (cross-striped, or ischerchenny, muscular T.). Kinds of muscular T. are united in one group on a functional sign — ability to reduction. Muscular T. provides mobility of separate bodies and an organism in general.
Nervous tissue consists of neurocytes and a glia, develops from an ectoderm (see), except for a microglia, the mezenkhimny origin has edges. The main structurally functional component — the neurocytes capable to perception of irritations, their transformation in excitement, to carrying out impulses on nerve fibrils and transfer to their other cells or fabrics. Thanks to this ability communication between fabrics and bodies and regulation of their activity is carried out.
Bibliography: Histology, under the editorship of V. G. Yeliseyev, etc., page 120, M., 1983; Manager r-z and A. A N. Sketches of evolutionary histology of blood and connecting it is woven, century 1, M., 1945; To l and sh about in A. A. Istorikognoseologichesky the analysis of the concept «fabric», Arkh. annate., gistol. and embriol., t. 83, century 7, page 74, 1982; M and x and y l about in V. P. and To and t and N and with G. S. About the basic concepts of histology, in the same place, t. 73, century 9, page. And, 1977.
Yu. I. Afanasyev.