EXTRA HOSPITAL HELP — the medical aid rendered to the population in out-patient clinics, policlinics, clinics, clinics for women, medical medical units and health centers of the industrial enterprises on medical assistant's, medical and obstetrical centers, the stations of ambulance, at visit of patients at home, and also as first aid. Accusative is the most mass and brought closer to the population type of medical aid.
In pre-revolutionary Russia Accusative was rendered by hl. obr. private medical practitioners; it was available to generally well-founded segments of the population. In 1913 in the cities of Russia was only 1230 institutions of Accusative, for this year 33 500 thousand visits by patients of institutions of Accusative were registered. Gained originally broad development of Accusative only after Great October socialist revolution. The population of all federal republics is provided with the timely and qualified out-patient and polyclinic medical assistance (tab. 1 and 2).
The polyclinic help in the USSR I the socialist countries provides treatment of 80% of patients and is bright expression of advantages of a socialist health system, a basis for broad prevention of diseases among broad masses of the population.
Institutions of Accusative render to the population medical aid by the local principle (see. Medical site ). The leading method of work of institutions of Accusative is medical examination (see). Existence public, free, qualified, specialized by Accusative provides a possibility of early diagnosis and treatment of diseases, timely capture on dispensary observation, implementation of a number of preventive actions, performing planned hospitalization. In institutions of Accusative issues of medical examination of temporary disability are resolved.
For creation of succession in work of institutions of the extra hospital and stationary help a number of the actions providing complex treatment, medical examination and rehabilitation of patients is carried out. So, at hospitalization and after an extract from a hospital of establishment Accusative and a hospital transfer each other necessary medical documentation — the prenatal record with the estimated diagnosis and data of laboratory, tool and other inspections, an extract from a case history with a stage epicrisis, etc.
Table 1. The NUMBER of the MEDICAL INSTITUTIONS GIVING OUT-PATIENT and POLYCLINIC HELP In the USSR In 1940 — 1974 *
- Reduction of number of institutions for rendering the medical out-patient and polyclinic assistance happened due to merging of these institutions to sick-lists, and also due to their enlargement.
Table 2. DYNAMICS of GROWTH of MEDICAL ASSISTANCE to URBAN AND COUNTRY PEOPLE IN OUT-PATIENT and POLYCLINIC INSTITUTIONS of the USSR In 1940-1974.
- Including data of institutions of allied subordination.
Bibliography: Gomel G. L. and d river. Sketches of development of the polyclinic help in the cities of the USSR, M., 1971.
S. Ya. Freydlin.