EXPLOSIVE SUBSTANCES, professional harm — chemical compounds and mix of substances which are capable to the bystry chemical reaction which is followed by allocation of a large amount of heat and formation of gases. Century of century can be firm, liquid, gaseous, and also suspensions of solid particles or liquid substances in gases. As B. century and components of explosive mixtures trinitrotoluene, tetrilgeksogen, octogene, nitroglycerine, pentaerythritol tetranitrate (Teng), nitrocotton, nitromethane, ammonium nitrate, etc. are most often applied. The century initiating V. (lead azide, mercury fulminate, trinitrorezortsinat lead tetrazene) are used for initiation of explosive transformation of other substances.
By production of nitroglycerine poisoning can be caused by inhalation of its vapors, dust or hit on skin, and at explosions of nitroglycerine or dynamite — the mix of substances which is formed at the same time (carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide gas, nitric oxides, nitriles, vapors of nitroglycerine, etc.). Acute poisoning with nitroglycerine is followed by a headache, dizziness, face reddening, burning in a throat and a stomach. In hard cases faints, a sonitus, nausea, vomiting, gripes, a photophobia and passing visual disturbances, paralyzes (especially eye muscles) are possible; breath at first is speeded up, then is slowed down, delay of pulse, a cold snap of extremities is observed. The workers who constantly have contact with nitroglycerine can have persistent pulsing headaches lasting from several hours to two days and which are followed by a plentiful mocheotdeleniye. Long not healing ulcers under nails and on the ends of fingers can develop, rash on bottom side of a foot and between fingers of hands, a xeroderma and cracks develops.
Effect of pentaerythritol tetranitrate is very similar to effect of nitroglycerine, but is expressed more weakly.
First aid: the victim needs to be brought to fresh air, to exempt from the contaminated clothes, to wash a body warm water, to allow to drink strong tea. At a faint of the victim to lay, having raised the foot end of a bed, to allow to smell the cotton wool moistened with spirit of ammonia, to pound skin, inhalation of oxygen is recommended. At disturbance of breath — Carbogenum, subcutaneously — analeptics (caffeine, Corazolum, Cordiaminum), on on kazaniye — lobeline or Cytitonum, an artificial respiration. At a Jacob's ladder introduction methylene blue inside on 0,065 — 0,130 g each four hours or intravenously 50 — 100 ml of 1% of solution for 25% solution of glucose is necessary. If necessary bloodletting (250 — 300 ml).
At the workers occupied on operations of drying and sifting of a tetrilgeksogen the phenomena of intoxication which are followed by a headache, dizziness, nausea, sweetish taste and feeling of dryness in a mouth, strong thirst, sharp weakness, twitching of all body or only hands, legs, the head are possible. These phenomena can last of several minutes to the 20th hour. In more hard cases there comes the loss of consciousness, cyanosis of the person and extremities, spasms with tongue biting, sometimes with an involuntary urination and the expiration of a seed. After the termination of spasms — repeated vomiting within a day and more. Disorder of the autonomic nervous system, sometimes frustration of a dream is noted. Poisonings are observed more often in the first 6 — 8 months of work. At chronic influence workers complain of headaches, a digestive disturbance, increase of an urination. Women can have a long delay of periods. Reduction of number of erythrocytes, hemoglobin and reticulocytes, considerable decrease in percentage of neutrophils, increase in number of lymphocytes and monocytes is noted.
At treatment of acute poisonings injection of glucose with ascorbic to - that is recommended, to an injection of a thiamine bromide, nicotinic to - you, sulfate magnesia. Appoint phenobarbital, cardiacs, inhalation of oxygen. At spasms — Chlorali hydras, Calcium chloratum, a lumbar puncture.
The maximum allowable concentration of a tetrilgeksogen in air of production rooms makes 1 mg/m 3 . Preventive actions come down to sealing of productions, the device of local exhaust suctions, ventilation of the room, observance of measures of personal hygiene, use of individual means of protection: antidust respirators, gloves, oversleeves, overalls.
Among V. century sharply expressed allergic action on skin tetryl possesses, causing dermatitis in easy and severe forms. At men, as a rule, dermatitis is expressed more sharply, than at women.
At acute dermatitis appoint cold lotions from 2% boric to - that, etc. In process of subsiding of ostrovospalitelny process and at hron, dermatitis pastes and ointments with addition of coke-oven coal tar, sulfur, resorcin are shown. Effectively there is a use of prednizolonovy ointment. At dermatitis of the person — zinc carbonate ointment, tinted by iron oxide.
Preventive actions in production of tetryl come down to isolation of the operations which are followed by release of dust in the special glazed cabins (the worker out of a cabin), to careful cleaning of jobs and rooms, daily shift of linen and overalls, washing under a shower, protection of hair. Use of hard sulphitic soap for washing and film-forming ointments like «invisible gloves», napr, casein paste of Institute of labor protection of the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions, paste on the basis of methyl cellulose, etc. is shown.
Poisoning with trinitrotoluene and prevention — see. Trinitrotoluene .
See also Blasting .
Yu. V. Novikov.