EXPERIMENTAL THERAPY — treatment of the diseases which are artificially caused in animals.
To be engaged in one of the first beginnings in experimental therapy F. Marangdi. K. Bernard and other researchers continued development of this direction. I. P. Pavlov for the first time defined experimental therapy as a method of the physiological analysis of pathological processes.
Broad development E. t. received in researches of pharmacologists and pathophysiologists, first of all at the schools run by N. P. Kravkov, A. D. Speransky, A. A. Bogomolts. In pharmacology and chemotherapy E. t. it is widely applied to searches of new pharmaceuticals and studying of the mechanism of their action. By means of E. t. on pilot models of diseases and various patol. states (see Model of a disease experimental) testing of new pharmacological and chemotherapeutic drugs can be carried out. AA. t. gives the chance to fulfill new methods of operative measures, to use new surgical instruments, kleyushchy means. Pathophysiologists use experimental therapy mainly for studying of mechanisms of recovery (see) under the influence of various to lay down. influences.
AA. t. gives the chance to check this or that method of treatment of diseases of the person. It allows to carry out impact on the model controlled in all necessary parameters in the absence of the complicating diseases, using the corresponding control methods of all functions of an organism and morfol. assessment of results. Experimental therapy gives also the chance to check efficiency of a method for different animals and in randomly the varied conditions of an experimental background.
However it is not possible to reproduce all reasons and conditions of development of a disease in the person on animals as owing to it biol. differences from animals, and in connection with a pevosproizvodimost of a background of the state of health of the person and influence psikhol. factors, in some cases lower affects, than at the person, sensitivity of animals to pharmacological and chemotherapeutic influences.
For achievement of a certain effect as a result of use E. t. it is necessary to use animals with standard characteristics, to have the complete information about essence and reproducibility of model of a disease and a measure of its looking alike of the modelled disease of the person, and also to apply methods of quantitative assessment both the general result of influence, and the necessary number changing fiziol. parameters, besides, existence of morphological control E is obligatory. t.
The choice of an animal for experiences depends on the research objective and tasks facing the experimenter. Because crucial importance has commonality of animals, experiments make on pure (inbredny) lines of animals (see. Linear animals). For obtaining the greatest compliance of artificially caused diseases of animals with diseases of the person make experiments on monkeys. It was succeeded to cause an experimental hypertension, coronary insufficiency, a myocardial infarction, a row in these animals inf. diseases, development of tumors and others patol. the processes close on an etiology and a pathogeny to those, to-rye are observed at people.
For the purpose of searches of new chemotherapeutic means and studying of the mechanism of their action widely apply numerous pilot models of a disease (an intestinal amebiasis of white rats; trypanosomic infections of mice; malarial infection of canaries, chickens, siskins; tick-borne spirokhetoza of mice and Guinea pigs; the generalized and localized infections, including pneumonia, intestinal infections of white mice and rabbits, tuberculosis of mice and Guinea pigs; viral flu of mice, etc.). Experimental therapy of tumors is performed on various models of tumors and leukoses (the perevivny, induced and so-called spontaneous). In an experiment for definition of influence of different substances on heart and vessels models of diseases of cardiovascular system (atherosclerosis of rabbits, dogs, hens, a hypertension of dogs, coronary insufficiency and a myocardial infarction of rabbits, dogs, cats, heart diseases of dogs and other animals) are created. Pilot models of neurosises (see), various morbid conditions of c are developed. N of the page connected with emergence of the centers in it patol. excitement and disturbance of the intercentral relations, in particular convulsive states and hyperkinesias. Great value for E. t. and researches of efficient preventive also to lay down. means have also models of a radial illness. Methods E are widely used. t. terminal and postresuscitatic states, and also therapeutic and preventive impacts on the organism which is in extreme conditions.
For studying of new substance in quality to lay down. means most often apply simpler model of a disease that allows to experiment on bigger number of animals. During the receiving positive takes studying of this substance already on more difficult models is carried out.
During the studying of new pharmaceuticals apply substances of placebo, indifferent for an organism, to control (see). At administration of placebo the same manipulations are made, as at administration of the tested medicine.
AA. t. on laboratory animals it can be carried out only on condition of performance of certain standards of their contents, leaving and special preparation for an experiment (see. Laboratory animals).
Before reproduction of an artificial disease and during its treatment all animals need special observation. At the same time study dynamics of weight, register amount of the water eaten beggars and drunk, and also motor and food performance of animals. Often at E. t. it is necessary to apply the special methods of a research defining a condition of the major systems of an organism — a X-ray analysis (see), an electrocardiography (see), an electroencephalography (see), thermometry (see). Consider also sexual distinctions of animals, and also changes fiziol. conditions of females (spout, pregnancy). On results E. t. significantly conditions of keeping of animals and vivariums influence (see).
Indicators at normal and patol. states at various animals can differ considerably from indicators at the person therefore constant assessment of indicators and studying of materials on physiology of laboratory animals and a wedge are necessary. to a picture of their diseases. Adequate use of the studied influences is of great importance. So, pharmaceuticals are usually applied in various doses (during the calculation of a dose consider the weight and sensitivity of an animal) and entered through a mouth with food or by means of the probe, and also parenterally, including intraperitoneally.
Accounting of results E. t. in a habit view it is made on survival and mortality of animals. At the same time in addition to the characteristic of disease essential value has a pathomorphologic research of the dead and the experimental and control animals slaughtered into certain terms. However thinner and special methods, as a rule, are required (e.g., on dynamics of recovery of an ECG, EEG, indicators of century of N of) with careful statistical processing of digital data. At assessment of results E. t. it is necessary to consider a possibility of influence on animals of seasonal factors.
By means of E. t. antibiotics are open and studied (see), a number of antineoplastic means is found (see), the newest means of pharmacotherapy (see) many noninfectious diseases, the main methods of modern resuscitation are developed (see), the new data connected with development of a problem of mechanisms of recovery are obtained.
After completion of comprehensive check of medicines and methods of treatment on animals (see Control of pharmaceuticals) and receiving positive takes carrying out clinical tests is possible, to-rye in the USSR M3 of the USSR are regulated. This testing procedure practically excludes a possibility of unexpected harmful effects on health of examinees.
See also Experiment .
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A. M. Chernukh.