EXPERIENCE of the SOVIET MEDICINE IN the GREAT PATRIOTIC WAR of 1941-1945.

From Big Medical Encyclopedia

EXPERIENCE of the SOVIET MEDICINE IN the GREAT PATRIOTIC WAR of 1941-1945. — the fundamental scientific work in 35 volumes which generalized the experience of the Soviet doctors gained for years of war in the field of health protection of staff of Armed Forces of the USSR and treatment of wounded and sick soldiers both on the battlefield and in the back of the country. The edition is undertaken according to the resolution of Council of ministers of USSR of March 26, 1946. «About scientific development and synthesis of experience of the Soviet medicine during the Great Patriotic War of 1941 — 1945» was also published in 1951 — 1955.

The group of authors and editors from 1700 persons was involved in development and generalization of the materials characterizing experience of the Soviet medicine in the Great Patriotic War, and the edition of work. Among them there were 50 academicians and member boxes-respondents of AN and the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences, academies of Sciences of federal republics, the prominent medical specialists and doctors who were taking part in health protection of staff of Armed Forces of the USSR and treatment of wounded and sick soldiers at the front and in the back. Hl. the editor of work of the academician of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences E. I. Smirnov during all Great Patriotic War headed medical service AF of the USSR.

Process of creation of work consisted of two stages: collecting materials and their primary scientific processing; syntheses of experience of the Soviet medicine in the years of war on the basis of the data received as a result of the scientific analysis of the collected and processed starting materials. Work was conducted on base Military-medical museum (see), in funds to-rogo the wars which are saved up in years documents of primary military-medical account (in particular, medical cards of the advanced area, history of diseases), reports of an operating controls of medical service (armies, fronts, military districts, system of evacuation centers) and separate medical institutions, documentary photographs, pathoanatomical drugs and more than 30 thousand various exhibits characterizing activity of medical service AF of the USSR during war were collected. In the course of working on work studied articles published during 1941 — 1945 on various questions of medical providing Armed Forces of the USSR (the index of literature made by an editorial board contained apprx. 12,5 thousand such publications), and also 454 works of doctors — participants of war, presented on the competition announced by an editorial board.

Statistical processing of the digital data which are contained in registration and reporting documents was carried out according to specially developed program and statistical lists therefore the St. 14 thousand tables containing apprx. 4 million indicators characterizing wounds and diseases was made.

«Experience of the Soviet medicine in the Great Patriotic War of 1941 — 1945» is subdivided into four parts. The first part «Surgery» (20 vol.) consists of 15 sections, in to-rykh the most important common problems of field surgery (stage treatment of wounds, burns, freezing injuries, fight against a wound fever, shock, anesthesia, etc.)> features of pathology and a wedge, displays of wounds of various localization are covered, and also quality standard of efficiency of the applied methods of surgical treatment is given. Second part «Therapy» (11 vol.) consists of 11 sections, in to-rykh diseases of internals, a nervous system, and also skin and inf are described. the diseases arising among staff of troops during war; a specific place is held by the section devoted to the diseases of internals which are a little studied in the past at wounded. Third part «Epidemiology and hygiene» (2 vol.) consists of 4 sections lighting a dignity. - epid, a condition of troops, philosophy a dignity. - a gigabyte. and their anti-epidemic providing and the main anti-epidemic events disclosing content held among troops and the population. The gigabyte is given in materials of the third part. characteristic of food, water supply and field accommodation of troops. In general the maintenance of this part of work demonstrates the huge progress of military hygiene and epidemiology which allowed for the first time in the history of wars it is reliable to protect AF of the USSR from emergence of epidemics. In the fourth part «Pathology of a fire injury» (2 vol.) the mechanism of action of a hurting shell, essence of a wound process and pathology of wound complications are lit. It contains the analysis of these complications, and also outcomes of wounds depending on the weight of damage, terms of rendering medical aid and other factors influencing full value of medical aid.

The work «Experience of the Soviet Medicine in the Great Patriotic War of 1941 — 1945.» along with Encyclopaedic dictionary of military medicine (see) is a worthy monument of dedicated fight of the Soviet physicians for health and life of soldiers of the Soviet Army and Navy. At the same time the scientific analysis of extensive and diverse experience of the Soviet medicine in the Great Patriotic War exerted enormous impact on its further development and, first of all, allowed to plan ways of further development of system of medical providing and improvement of methods of preventive and to lay down. works in AF of the USSR.



Bibliography: A. S of St. George. Several thoughts but occasion of «Experience of the Soviet medicine in Great Patriotic War of 1941 — 1945», Voyen. - medical zhurn., No. 7, page 87, 1957; it, the Chronicle of heroic work of the Soviet physicians in the Great Patriotic War of 1941 — — 1945. (The historiographic review of publications about medical support of armed forces of the USSR), Owls. zdravookhr., No. 2, page 55, 1975; Wry-mouthed I. A. O of a role of the museum in statistical development and preparation of materials for the edition of the work «Experience of the Soviet Medicine in the Great Patriotic War of 1941 — 1945.», Works Voyen. - the medical museum, t. 7, page 206, JI., 1958; Experience of the Soviet medicine in the Great Patriotic War of 1941 — 1945, t. 1, page VII, 1951; Sketches of history of the Soviet military medicine, under the editorship of D. D. Kuvshinsky and A.S. Georgiyevsky, page 447, JI., 1968; Poles JI. E. and Vlasenko V. G. Selective military me - wild and statistical researches in Armed Forces of the USSR, Voyen. - medical zhurn., No. 4, page 90, 1976.


A.S. Georgiyevsky.

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