EXHUMATION (exhumatio; lat. ekh-from + humus the earth, the soil) — extraction of a corpse from the place of burial.
AA. can be official (on purpose court. - medical researches, a reburial of a corpse at other cemetery, etc.), accidental (during the carrying out excavation, disassembly of old buildings, etc.) and criminal (for the purpose of marauding, violation of a corpse from hooligan motives or from revenge). AA. on purpose court. - medical researches of a corpse it is appointed investigation authorities or court when initial autopsy of a corpse was not made in general (at official burial of a corpse without opening, and also at detection of the corpse which is secretly buried by the criminal) or was made, but with essential defects, or in connection with the circumstances which again opened during the investigation.
Court. - medical examination of the exhumed corpse allows to resolve in some cases successfully the important issues relating to the reason and category of death, character and origins of damages, character and a type of the tool of an injury.
According to article 180 of the Code of criminal procedure of RSFSR and the relevant articles of codes of criminal procedure of federal republics E. it is carried out by the investigator with participation court. - the medical expert and witnesses. Before E. the investigator on the basis of testimonies of relatives and relatives of the dead, witnesses, by data the REGISTRY OFFICE or funeral bureau establishes location of a grave and makes its identification. After that the grave is opened and carefully remove a coffin from the earth. Stages E. the investigator fixes in the special protocol, to-ry participants E. Rekomenduyetsya sign to photograph the habit view of a grave before its opening taken from the earth a coffin, a habit view of a corpse in a coffin. The corpse is shown for an identification to relatives of the dead or witnesses, at the same time specify in the protocol on what signs or signs the corpse was identified.
Court. - the medical research of the exhumed corpse is made in a morgue. In some cases, e.g. at impossibility to deliver a corpse in a morgue, it can be investigated at the cemetery or in the adapted room. After the termination court. - medical researches place a coffin with a corpse in a grave, a cut give an original form.
Due to the special importance and complexity of examination of the exhumed corpse studying of investigative and judicial documents, materials primary court shall precede it. - medical researches of a corpse (if that was made). The exhumed corpse is investigated with observance of the rules established for this purpose (see Opening, medicolegal). The outside research includes inspection and the description of a coffin; studying, the description and withdrawal for the further analysis of cadaveric fauna; careful survey of the clothes which are available on a corpse; definition of expressiveness and features of cadaveric changes, damages (including connected with initial autopsy of a corpse). The technique of a research of the exhumed corpse which was not exposed to opening before burial has no essential features. When the exhumed corpse before burial was opened, at its internal research it is necessary to describe an arrangement and a condition of internals, section cuts on them. For establishment of injuries of bones they are exempted from soft tissues. Carefully study all found changes and damages as described in the conclusion at initial autopsy of a corpse, not reflected in it.
Diagnostic opportunities court. - medical examinations of the exhumed corpse depend generally on degree of its safety, the nature of damages and patol. changes. Degree of safety of a corpse is defined by external factors (prescription of burial, season when it was made, conditions of finding of a corpse in the earth, including nature of the soil) and the internal factors depending on a cause of death, the condition of an organism, age of the dead, expressiveness of an autolysis and putrefactive changes preceding it (see. Postmortem changes). The autolysis and rotting sharply change structure of cellular elements of bodies and fabrics of a corpse that can interfere with establishment of character being available patol. manifestations. Usually putrefactive changes develop in substance of a brain, liver, a spleen quicker, bodies went. - kish. a path more slowly — in kidneys, heart, a uterus, a bladder, a prostate gland and connective tissue educations. Processes of rotting of a corpse can be slowed down if to the patient entered nek-ry pharmaceuticals, e.g. antibiotics, streptocides during lifetime. More slowly rotting at poisonings with drugs of mercury, arsenic develops, cyanic connections. Vaguely long time are not exposed to rotting of a bone that will give the chance to establish existence, character and features of the changes caused by this or that patol. process of ohms, e.g. the deforming arthrosis, a spondylosis, a spondylarthrosis, a tuberculosis of bones and joints, osteomyelitis, syphilis, rickets, gout, tumors of bones, diseases of teeth. The importance for the investigation and vessels has detection of bruises of bones.
At a research of the exhumed corpse it must be kept in mind possibility of posthumous damages of the soft tissues and bones caused by a pridavlivaniye boards of a coffin or solid soil, and also caused by insects. On secretly buried corpse the posthumous damages caused intentionally for the purpose of an obezobrazheniye and concealment of the identity of the dead can be found (see Obezobrazheniye).
Though to such preserving postmortem changes as an adipocere (see) and mummification (see), precedes rotting, nevertheless at their development more favorable conditions for identification defined morfol are created. symptoms of diseases and damages later a long time after burial of a corpse.
At court. - medical examination of the exhumed corpse widely apply laboratory researches, first of all physics and technology, histologic and judicial and chemical. Against the background of putrefactive changes with success apply the technique of processing of drugs acetum-alcohol solution offered by A. N. Ratnevsky to recovery of an original form of a skin wound. For establishment of diseases and injuries of bones use a X-ray analysis. Gistol. the research allows to establish in some cases existence and character patol. changes in internals and fabrics despite putrefactive processes. Great value at suspicion of poisoning acquire court. - chemical researches. Various poisons remain in a corpse unequal time that depends by nature toxic agent, its quantities which were carried out during lifetime to lay down. actions, time which passed from the moment of acceptance of poison to the death of the victim and also from prescription of stay of a corpse in the earth. Metal poisons and arsenic remain in a corpse for many years (see Bismuth, Manganese, Copper, Arsenic, Mercury, Lead, Zinc). Carboxyhaemoglobin has considerable resistance to putrefactive processes, to-ry it can be found in blood, tissue of a brain, muscles in terms up to 6 months after burial, and at burial in winter time — even longer. Derivatives barbituric to - you (see Barbiturates) can remain in a corpse up to several months, various alkaloids (see) — from several months to 2 years.
Except bodies and fabrics of a corpse on court. - the chemical research needs to be directed sample of the earth taken directly over a coffin under a coffin, at side surfaces and the ends of a coffin (corpse), and also clothes, pieces of an upholstery of a coffin, a part of boards of a bottom of a coffin.
See also Poisonings, in the medicolegal relation; Forensic medical examination.
Bibliography: Avdeev M. I. Forensic medical examination of a corpse, page 21, M., 1976; Bedrin L. M. and Zagryadskaya A. P. Medicolegal opportunities of a research of the exhumed corpse. Gorky, 1978; Porksheyan O. of X. Forensic medical examination of the exhumed corpse. (Speed and nature of changes of a corpse in a grave), L., 1970; it. Forensic medical examination of the exhumed corpse, century 1 — 2, L., 1971; Shvaykova M. D. Toxicological chemistry, M., 1975.
L. M. Bedrin.