From Big Medical Encyclopedia

EXERCISE MACHINES — educational treiirovoch-nye the devices or devices used for development of movement skills, development and improvement of the technology of management by car (mechanism), recovery and improvement of functions of a musculoskeletal system of the person.

According to the destination T. subdivide on sports and recreational, sports, medical and technological.

Sports and recreational T. use for providing and maintenance of good shape of health, prevention of diseases, and also (according to indications) for acceleration of rehabilitation of the patients who had various diseases and injuries. Sports and recreational T. were widely adopted especially in connection with features sovr. the working conditions and life which are followed by decrease in a physical activity, and also mass use of means of physical culture in prevention of various diseases. They are applied on a number of productions, in house conditions, in the rooms of health organized at the place of residence. By means of T. workers and employees can during a lunch break or after work to remove nervous tension, fatigue, to train the muscles which are not participating in production. Exercises on recreational T. are shown also in preventive and to lay down. the purposes at coronary heart disease, a hypertension, vegeto-vascular dystonia, hron. nonspecific diseases of lungs, etc.

Among sports and recreational distinguish T., the loadings providing performance of exercises without control of intensity, and T., equipped with control facilities and managements. To the first group T., the movements allowing to fulfill separate elements, crossbeams, short flights of stairs, walls belong, on to-rykh loading it is created at the expense of the body weight which is engaged. The domestic industry produces the following exercise machines of this group in lots: the Pedal exercise machine,

load of Krom is created by lowering of pedals; tretban «Humming-birds», the cut representing a floor frame with the changing tilt angle, inside on cross rods are located the rotating castors — on them «runs» engaged (at the change of a tilt angle of a frame imitating run uphill load of «running» raises); the rowing Station wagon-2 exercise machine with mobile sitting allowing to set load of each oar from 1 to 70 kg; it is possible to carry out the Health exercise machine wall consisting of the Swedish wall and a bench with mobile sitting on Krom by means of spring expanders and roofing felts to 80 various exercises; the Salute exercise bike with most set 500 W loading equipped with also spring expanders for a training of muscles of a shoulder girdle.

To the second group of sports and recreational T. the Health exercise bike produced by the industry and the VE stationary bicycle developed by the Kiev scientific research institute of medical problems of physical culture — 02 belong in lots, allowing to dose and smoothly to change with the broad range load of an organism at rotation of pedals. The Health exercise bike represents a tubular frame with the wheel regulated on height and a tilt angle, a saddle, the load structure, a driving chain, indicators of the movement and loading, and also the timer. Sports and recreational T. are used also in the course of the sports trainings.

Frequency of occupations on sports and recreational T. makes 3 — 4 times a week, duration of one occupation for 25 — 30 min. starting them, for engaged irregularly — 15 — 20 min., for it is long engaged — 10 — 15 min.

Sports T. achievements of high sports results serve increase in high-speed and power qualities, endurance, improvement of function of a musculoskeletal system for the purpose of development of the technology of the movements. Sports T. subdivide into T. for training and improvement of the technology of the movements, T. for the general and special physical training, T. for increase in tactical and theoretical preparation, T. for improvement of psychological training of the athlete. Use of T. in the course of the trainings of athletes opens ample opportunities of a variation of all duties of muscles and sizes of the overcome loadings, selective impact on separate muscles or groups of muscles. In a technique of use of sports T. it is necessary to establish at what stage of a training it is necessary to apply them what exercises and in what quantity to use what shall be the size of the general loading. At the correct technique of use a role of T. raises with growth of skill of the athlete.

The organization of specialized training complexes and halls is especially perspective for sports trainings and recreational occupations. In All-Union scientific research institute of physical culture the sports training and research complex including a row T is created. different purpose, information with to-rykh comes to data processing center. The trainer and the athlete have an opportunity during the training and even during the performance of one exercise purposefully to adjust a training lesson.

Systematic use of T. in recreational p the sports purposes provides good health, more bystry achievement of sportswear (see the Training) and essential increase in functional reserves of an organism. At almost healthy people 40 years use for a physical training of the Health complex, the exercise bike and rowing are more senior than T. during 8 weeks (duration of each occupation about 30 min.) increases the maximum oxygen consumption by 15 — 30% gyu to comparison with initial sizes, improves coronary circulation, reduces the level of cholesterol and triglycerides in blood, and also weight (weight) of a body.

Almost healthy people have a work on T. demands an optimum regulation taking into account the level of physical fitness, age and a floor. In the presence on T. the devices allowing to consider loading, the size of training tension at men can be calculated by formulas:

Ó = —

0,2 + 0,5^

(for for the first time starting occupations),

r =-ti —

g-0,2 + O.oVr 1 M

(for engaged irregularly),

R-— _ ^_

0,2 + 0.4

(for regularly engaged in physical exercises on endurance),

where P — the power of loading in W, And — age advanced in years, M — the weight (weight) of a body in kg. At women the size of training loads makes 75 — 80% of the sizes recommended for men. If body weight exceeds norm for 10 — 30%, the power of loading in W is multiplied on 0,9, by 30 — 50% — for 0,75, more than 50% — on 0,6.

On T., not having devices for control of loading, dosing it is made on change of the heart rate (HR) during the occupations on T. For for the first time ChSS starting occupations during the training shall not exceed the sizes calculated as follows: for men 155 minus age, for women 160 minus age; for irregularly engaged men — 165 .minus age, women — 170 minus age; for regularly engaged men — 180 minus age, women — 185 minus age. Achievement of top physical condition at the specified ways of a regulation of loadings is observed at people with initially bad physical training in 32 — 40 weeks, with initially moderate physical training — in 16 — 24 weeks. At physically well prepared people building of loading shall be carried out due to increase in its duration, but not intensity.

Medical T. apply at recovery treatment when the local influences controlled on duration and intensity are necessary for development of mobility in joints of extremities and increases in force of muscles (see Mekhanoterapiya). Their use considerably accelerates process of recovery of the broken motive function.

In practice of recovery treatment use three types of exercise machines: T. pendular type, the balancing of a pendulum based on the principle; T., to-rykh the principle of the block and draft of a load is the cornerstone of a design; T., in to-rykh the principle of the lever in combination with the inertia arising at the movement is used. Indications to use of T. the first look existence of a contracture, the second look — decrease in an animal force and restriction of the movement serves in joints, the third look — simplification of active movements and recovery of mobility in joints. Good results in recovery treatment are yielded by use of T. in a complex with exercises to lay down. gymnastics (see. Physiotherapy exercises).

Fpzkulturno - recreational, sports, and also medical T. for children differ in the smaller extent, stylization of external design, an opportunity to use game elements in the course of the occupations.

Technological T. apply in practice of inservice training of working different specialties, drivers of transport, dispatchers, during the training of pilots, astronauts, in the course of combat training of staff of Armed Forces, etc.

Exercise machines in aircraft and astronautics are intended for working off of skills of control of the aircraft or its separate systems, acquaintance with various factors of flight and development of resistance to them.

Aviation and space T. reproduce static and dynamic characteristics of aircraft, nek-ry physical factors of flight (noise, overloads, vibrations, height, etc.), and also operation of engines, an operating controls, failures of the equipment, etc. On the volume of modeling and the maintenance of the problems of T fulfilled on them. are subdivided on specialized and complex.

Specialized T. allow to fulfill separate tasks of control of the aircraft and its systems. They imitate, e.g., take off and landing of the airplane, work of an onboard radio navigational complex, engines, etc. Specialized space T. give the chance to carry out training of crews on ship-handling at stages of mooring and joining, orientation, descent from an orbit, etc.

Complex T. serve for working off of performance of all elements of a flight task or the program of space flight. On complex aviation T. dynamics of flight of the aircraft, the movement on the ground (taxing, running start, a run), operation of the aviation engine in different conditions, a navigation complex, etc. is modelled in full. Especially T are important. during the training of pilots for night flights and flights in difficult meteorol. conditions.

Complex space T. represents the model of the spaceship or the space station. Work of crew on performance of the operations connected with management of an object, control of a condition of onboard systems, conducting radio negotiations, etc. is based taking into account the set program of flight. Complex T. imitates also the star sky seen from the spaceship, the sun, the Earth's surface, the television image of an object of joining.

Complex and specialized T. promote development at pilots and astronauts psikhol. readiness for flight and necessary professional psikhofizpol. skills: perception and bystry assessment of indications flight navigatspon-nykh devices, distribution and switching of attention, accurate performance of actions on control of the aircraft, etc.

T. various types apply also to a physical training of pilots and astronauts in the course of their preparation for flight. The overloads arising in flight imitate by means of centrifuges (see the Centrifuge), vertical catapults (see Ejection), horizontal reactive stands. For a training of a vestibular mechanism (see. A vestibular training) and statokinetic system of an organism, prevention of a motion desease (see) in flight use a chetyrekhshtangovy swing, loppng, a trampoline and the Rennes wheel, a chair Baranp on an unstable support. The changes of atmospheric pressure, partial pressure of oxygen, temperature of an ambient air characteristic of flights on aircraft, W. h space, reproduce in pressures chamber (see) and thermopressures chamber. Zero gravity is imitated in hydropools, towers of zero gravity, during the flights by airplanes on a parabolic trajectory (see Zero gravity). Touch restrictions create in isolation chambers (see).

For a physical training of astronauts in long flights onboard space stations and spaceships establish a special training complex — the running path, the stationary bicycle, etc.

For effective use of aviation and space T. objective control of process and results of trainings is necessary. Indicators of quality of activity on T. are not sufficient criterion of level of fitness of the operator since they can be reached by the price of various tension of functional systems of an organism. The high quality of activity reached to the limit an organism does not provide high professional reliability. Therefore the level of fitness of the operator shall be defined not only quality of its work on T., but also psikhofiziol. the indicators characterizing tension of functional systems of an organism during the trainings: pulse rate, frequency and minute volume of breath, speed of responses, etc. It is important to define also reserves of attention of the operator that is reached by inclusion in the program of trainings of the additional signals demanding from the operator of responses against the background of performance of the main task.

Dynamics psikhofiziol. indicators during the performance of identical tasks for T. and the aircraft it is identical though value psikhofiziol. is much higher than indicators in real flight. In an initial stage of trainings psikhofp-ziol. indicators usually high and unstable. In process of development and fixing of necessary skills they decrease to the individual level and are stabilized. Lack of use of aviation and space T. the fact that they do not create an adequate emotspo-nalny background is, do not cause at trained sufficient sense of responsibility for the result of testing as it takes place in real flight.

Separate types of T. use also at inspection of pilots and astronauts for the purpose of medical years - ache examinations (see. Medical and flight commission). On the centrifuge investigate portability of centripetal accelerations, in a pressure chamber — resistance to a hypoxia and differences of atmospheric pressure. On the stationary bicycle by means of the dosed exercise stresses study functionality of cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Such researches at the same time serve as specific tests for detection of the latent diseases and states reducing resistance of an organism to factors of flight.

Bibliography: Aviation exercise machines, the lane with English, under the editorship of Yu. I. Kirilenko, M., 1959; Alabin V. G. and the Scratch-to about A. D. Exercise machines and training devices in physical culture and sport, Minsk, 1979; B about day r V. A., Zakirov R. A. and Smirnova I. I. Aviation exercise machines, M., 1978, bibliogr.; Gladyshev A. A. Multicomplete gymnastic apparatus, M., 1973; Gorank. I. Oborudovaniye of gyms technical means, Alma-Ata, 1976; M and nasyang. And. The equipment on remedial gymnastics, Yerevan, 1966; N and to at t of N y y I. D. Technical means in sport, Kiev, 1977; HI e l yu e N to about A. A., etc. Use of exercise machines in the recreational purposes, Kiev, 1984.

A. A. Shelyuzhenko, D. N. Deniskin, S. A. Dushanin, E. A. Pirogova, L. Ya. Ivashchenko; H. M. Rudny (av. medical).