From Big Medical Encyclopedia


a research the doctor-hygienist of documents (projects, production schedules, etc.) and hygienic studying of various objects of the environment regarding their compliance to the sanitary standards established by the sanitary legislation.

AA. the page is one of the main types of preventive activity of hygienists. It includes control of respect for the operating sanitary and hygienic and sanitary and anti-epidemic norms and

rules at design, construction and commissioning of objects of different function, during the development of norms of design, GOST, technical specifications on new types of raw materials, drinking water, food stuffs, etc.

The most ancient look E. the page is examination of foodstuff. Still Hippocrates, K. Galen, etc. wrote about close connection of health of the population with conditions and quality of food. Elementary dignity. supervision of sale of products was organized also in the medieval cities. Pyotr 1 issued a number of the decrees concerning quality of foodstuff.

Rapid development of chemistry and natural sciences at the end of 18 — the beginning of 19 century was premises for development of the doctrine about food stuffs. During this period the analytical chemistry arises and methods of definition of components of foodstuff are developed. Without studying of chemical structure of foodstuff also their examination could not develop successfully. Especially considerable work on improvement of methods of a research of foodstuff and their gigabyte. to the characteristic it was carried out under the leadership of F. F. Erisman in the Moscow sanitary station organized in 1891. Thanks to this work F. F. Erisman formulated for the first time the principles of sanitary examination of foodstuff and its methods.

With development of organized water supply of the inhabited places examination of water for the purpose of establishment of compliance its gigabyte. became requirements one of the major tasks a gigabyte. sciences. The first steps were taken in this direction in the second half of 19 century when for a gigabyte. researches began to apply laboratory methods widely. In 1937 the quality standard of the purified drinking water pumped in network by waterworks was for the first time developed and approved by Gossaninspektsiy RSFSR and Nar-komkhozom of RSFSR.

AA. the page is the most important element of the hygienic and anti-epidemic actions directed to the prevention and elimination of environmental pollution, improvement of working conditions, life, creation of optimal conditions of accommodation on prevention of diseases and strengthening of health of the population.

AA. the page is made a gigabyte. institutions and bodies dignity. - epid. services M3 of the USSR and mines - in health care of federal republics. The document regulating the rights and obligations of bodies a dignity. - epid. services and gigabyte. institutions in the field of current and precautionary a dignity. supervision, the Provision on the state sanitary inspection to the USSR approved by Council of ministers of the USSR in 1973 is (see. Sanitary inspection). According to this Situation bodies a dignity. supervision submit to the ministries, the state committees, departments, the enterprises, the organizations and institutions the obligatory conclusions based on acting a gigabyte. norms, sanitary and hygienic and anti-epidemic rules: according to drafts of normative documents, site plannings and buildings of settlements, to projects of long-term plans of placement of the industrial enterprises, territorial and production and agro-industrial complexes (TPK, agrarian and industrial complex); concerning providing the land plots under civil and industrial engineering, definition of places of a water intake and conditions of descent of drain waters and pollutions; according to engineering designs and working drawings on construction of the enterprises, buildings and constructions in cases when there is a need of partial derogation from requirements of existing rules and rules, and also in the absence of the approved norms and rules. To bodies dignity. supervision the right to consider the drafts of standards and technical specifications which are subject to approval on new types of raw materials, food stuffs, water of sources of water supply and economic and drinking water supply systems, industrial products, construction materials, a container and packing materials, polymeric both synthetics and products from them, and also projects of the new technological processes, types of the equipment, devices and working tools able to exert an adverse effect on human health is granted; to draw the conclusions about a condition of the houses put into operation, buildings of cultural and community appointment, food, industrial and other enterprises and constructions.

AA. the page of construction projects and reconstruction of industrial, construction engineering facilities, master plans of industrial hubs and cities, TPK, agrarian and industrial complex, schemes of a regional design, and also all other objects relies on modern achievements of hygienic science and sanitary practice, results of special researches.

Recently E. page gained considerable scientific development. The resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and Council of ministers of the USSR «About measures for further improvement of national health care» (1977) promoted improvement of a form of work of bodies a dignity. services, having exempted them from consideration of some projects.

AA. the page of foodstuff is carried out according to the Provision on the state sanitary inspection in the USSR. Task gigabyte. estimates clarification of organoleptic properties of food stuffs, their nutrition value, etc. is. Special attention is paid on those indicators, to-rye can be pointed directly or indirectly that the use of this foodstuff is hazardous to health (see Foodstuff).

Purposes E. pages of foodstuff are very various and are defined in each case arisen or delivered before bodies to GaH. - epid. services questions, but are always directed to public health care. AA. the page is planned work of SES (the current supervision) or is carried out in the presence of special indications, and also in an arbitration scheme.

Main objectives planned E. page — control: behind compliance a gigabyte. to requirements (chemical, bacteriological etc.) the foodstuff produced by the enterprises; behind compliance a gigabyte. to requirements of the products and a container intended for processing, packaging, transportation and storage of foodstuff; behind that the content of residual amounts of pesticides (see) in products did not exceed the approved admissible standards; behind use at production of foodstuff of the nutritional supplements allowed for these purposes (see).

Unplanned E. the page of foodstuff is carried out on special a dignity. - epid. to indications when foodstuff can constitute health hazard of the consumer; in an arbitration scheme; at the request of the leading Soviet, investigating and judicial authorities if conducting examination requires competence of hygienists.

At the organization and carrying out E. page dignity. the doctor shall be guided by all existing documents concerning requirements to quality, technology, storage and sale of this product (GOST, OST, TU, technological instructions), the normative documents establishing requirements to production of a certain product, standards of use of nutritional supplements (dyes, preservatives, fragrances, fermental drugs etc.), marginal residual amounts of the pesticides applied in agriculture, requirements to a container, packaging, etc. When on a product or the product which is exposed to examination there are no documents on standards of quality, it is necessary to be guided by the general a gigabyte. requirements. The data obtained at E. the page, and the conclusion about a product are made out in the form of the act.

To laboratory researches of products at E. the page the expert resorts when these or those properties raise them doubts and cannot be found out without special research of products in laboratory.

AA. the page of water, water objects is carried out for the purpose of establishment of compliance of their quality to requirements of GOST for organoleptic properties, safety in epidemiol. relation, harmlessness of chemical structure; it is directed to prevention of direct or indirect negative impact of the consumed water on health of the population. As evaluation criteria only the hygienic standards approved by M3 of the USSR can serve. The main documents at examination of water are GOST «Drinking water. Hygienic requirements and control of quality», «Rules of the choice and evaluation test of sources of the centralized economic and drinking water supply» and «Hygienic requirements to zones of a recreation of water objects». The volume of researches and their frequency are defined by a specific objective of studying, a dignity. and epidemiol. situation. The conclusion about suitability of a source of water supply or quality of water of an economic and drinking water supply system shall contain general information (the characteristic of a source of water supply, a water supply system, structure of treatment facilities and so forth) and a dignity. - chemical and mikrobi-ol. indicators. Assessment of suitability of a water object for water use of the population is carried out by bodies and institutions a dignity. - epid. services M3 of the USSR and mines - in health care of federal republics, and also health services of other departments to which the solution of this question is assigned (see Water, Water supply, Sanitary protection of reservoirs).

AA. the page of free air of the inhabited places is under construction on the basis of a complex of the legislative, organizational and sanitary actions directed to protection of free air against emissions of harmful substances by the industrial enterprises, transport, and also against other anthropogenous sources of its pollution, to-rye can make an adverse effect on the state of health of the population. The main criterion for evaluation of pollution of free air is served by maximum allowable concentrations of harmful substances in free air of the inhabited places, the providing necessary conditions for life and preservation of health of the population. In a crust, time theoretical and methodological bases a dignity are developed. supervision of quality of free air, to-rye are approved by the State Committee for Construction of the USSR in quality a dignity. norms (CH 369—74).

During the carrying out dignity. supervision on protection of free air a dignity. the service is guided by fundamental documents in the field of environmental control — the Law USSR «About protection of free air», the indications M3 of the USSR and the sanitary legislation of the country (see. Sanitary protection of free air).

In the USSR for a gigabyte. researches of food stuffs, water, materials contacting to them, etc. the methods provided by the corresponding GOST are applied generally. In case of lack of GOST are guided by the methods stated in instructions, methodical instructions and recommendations, утвержденных^ by the Head sanitary and epidemiologic department of M3 of the USSR and main a dignity. - epid. managements of mines - in health care of federal republics. In the absence of officially approved methods use of the methods of a research published in the corresponding guides with the obligatory instruction in the act of the reference is allowed.

A laboratory research the gigabyte gives an objective idea of compliance of the studied objects. to the norms and requirements provided in the specifications and technical documentation (see. Sanitary and hygienic researches). The laboratory making the analysis can express on the basis of the sent sample the opinion on compliance its gigabyte. to requirements, the final conclusion makes a dignity. the doctor, considering all set of materials (acquaintance with documentation, including the act of a laboratory research etc.).

Questions E. pages close adjoin to the work which is carried out by other services (Goskomgidromet's institutions by the USSR, Minvodkhoza of the USSR, the public veterinary service, the state inspectorate for quality and trade, etc.). The correct understanding and use of duties is of great importance and the dignity is right. - epid. services all ministries and departments during the carrying out E. page

the State inspectorate for quality of goods and trade carries out not only merchandising expertize, but also resolves the issues concerning a poor quality of products, not demanding special a gigabyte. knowledge. Departmental production laboratories exercise control of quality of the produced foodstuff, of drinking water, products from polymeric materials, structure of gas emissions and drain waters, quality of free air in the sanitary protection zone and waters of reservoirs are lower than dumping of drain waters, etc.

Bibliography: Questions of scientific hygienic examination of projects in precautionary sanitary inspection, under red *

A. P. Shitskova, M., 1974; M and N x A. A., Reference book on sanitary and hygienic researches, M., 1973; Nov

of k of Yu. V., Lastochkin K. O. and Boldin 3. H. Methods of definition of harmful substances in water of reservoirs, M., 1981; Bases of precautionary sanitary inspection, under the editorship of G. of X. Shah-bazyana and to E. I. Gonchar, Kiev, 1975.

A. P. Shitskova.