EXAMINATION MILITARY-MEDICAL (VVE) — medical examination of the military personnel, recruits or persons liable for call-up by the military-medical commission (MMC) for the purpose of establishment of degree of their validity to military service, including and to service in certain types of Armed Forces and types of military forces.
An object of VVE are the citizens attributed to draft sites, recruits, persons liable for call-up, the military personnel, candidates for military schools. If necessary workers and employees of the Soviet Army and Navy, and also members of families of the military personnel are exposed to medical survey.
In Russia the first references of VVE belong to the beginning of 18 century. Selection of replenishment for the Russian army was made by military leaders, and doctors had the right only to express opinion on the validity testified to military service. Expertize of the military personnel was carried out in hospitals (hospitals) where the chairman of the commission was not the doctor, but the officer of the district headquarters or military unit. Since the end 19 — the beginnings of 20 century the opinion of doctors in examination gains the increasing value.
Development of VVE began only after Great October socialist revolution. In 1918 a number of manuals to the temporary medical commissions and the instruction to doctors of the selection committees founded for survey of the persons which are called up for military service, and in 1921 — the first provision on VVK was published, the Crimea creation of the Central military-medical commission was provided (see. Military-medical commission). Since 1929 medical survey of citizens at an addition to draft sites is entered into practice and treatment of recruits.
Growth of hardware of army and fleet demanded constant improvement of approaches to selection of replenishment, and in the subsequent in examination the method of individual assessment of degree of the validity to military service was implemented.
The Great Patriotic War set for VVE a number of the new tasks of control of medical and diagnostic work in hospitals for the purpose of the maximum return to a system of wounded and patients, to establishment of a causal relationship of developing of diseases (wounds, contusions, injuries and mutilations) with military operations, to definition of extent of disability and fighting capacity. As a result of efforts of medical service, including bodies of VVE, during war it was returned in a system of St. 70% of wounded and St. 90% of patients.
In post-war years in connection with further development of the Soviet Armed Forces, equipment by their difficult military equipment and weapon, creation of new types of Armed Forces and types of military forces, and also development of medical science and practice activity of bodies of VVE goes for improvement of quality of medical selection of youth for military service and specialists for army and the fleet, control of medical and diagnostic and scheduled maintenance, and also for development of new criteria for evaluation of degree of the validity of recruits and military personnel to military service.
The main objectives of VVE are the methodical management and control: behind medical and recreational work among young men of preinduction age (see. Initial military preparation) and recruits; behind medical survey called up for active duty and coming to military schools; behind distribution of replenishment by types of Armed Forces, types of military forces (forces) and military specialties depending on the state of health, physical development, psikhofiziol. qualities; behind medical and diagnostic and scheduled maintenance in voyennolechebny institutions, parts and by the ships for the purpose of preservation of health of the military personnel on active duty. Besides, identification among the military personnel and persons liable for call-up of persons, for health reasons unusable, restrictedly suitable for military service, needing treatment, a sick leave or rest is assigned to bodies of VVE; definition of a causal relationship of diseases (wounds, contusions, injuries, mutilations) with passing of military service of the military personnel who is exposed to medical survey. The last has special value during the definition of the reason and group of disability (see. Medical labor commission of experts, Disability).
VVE will be organized and carried out according to requirements of the Law USSR on a general conscription, orders of the Minister of Defence and commanders-in-chief of types of Armed Forces of the country, commanders of districts, etc. The philosophy of VVE is individual assessment of degree of the validity to military service (work on military specialty). At the same time the nature of a disease and disfiguration, extent of their development, frequency of aggravations, efficiency of the treatment, the forecast, and also age, a profession demonstrated and features of its service in this or that type of military forces is surely considered.
In peace time medical survey of the contingents stated above is carried out to VVK (see. Military-medical commission). In wartime the special formations which are carrying out VVE are created. So, during Great Otechest of wine war there were following regular VVK: front evacuation point (VVK FEP), edge concerning examination submitted to the chairman of the Central VVK, and the military-medical commissions of evacuation points (field — VVK PEP, local — VVK MEP, distribution — VVK the RAP). The last concerning examination submitted to the chairman of VVK of the military district or VVK FEP.
Survey is carried out on the basis of the schedule of diseases and disfigurations, instructions and the guides to survey of certain military specialists of army and the fleet. The main documents processed for VVE are: book of protocols of meetings of the medical commission; act of a research of the state of health; certificate on a disease; the card of the medical survey coming to military school. Forms of these documents are defined by the provision on the medical examination in Armed Forces of the USSR which is put into operation by the order of the Minister of Defence of the USSR. Documents VVE shall meet requirements imposed to legal documents i.e. to be exact in essence, full and clear on a statement.
VVE on Navy has the features that is caused by equipment of modern submarines and surface ships difficult automated control systems, the electronic equipment, nuclear missile weapon and specific conditions of military work of staff of the fleet. In this regard to the state of health, physical development and psychophysiological qualities of various military specialists (divers, gidroakustik, radiometrist, signallers, operators, helmsmen, etc.). Navy increased requirements are imposed. Survey of the persons selected for training in the specified specialties is carried out by VVK of the reception and technical commission (RTC) of the fleet (a flotilla, naval base).
Military and scientific and research concerning VVE in army and on the fleet will be organized by the Central VVK, the Central medical and flight commission, VVK of types of Armed Forces and military districts.
V. A. Barannik, A. E. Komarnotov.