From Big Medical Encyclopedia

EXAMINATION MEDICAL AND FLIGHT (VLE) — medical examination by the medical and flight commissions of the persons coming to aviation schools with the purpose to select capable for health reasons to carry out flights on air aircraft, and also re-examination of aircrew and cadets of flight schools.

The priority in development of medical requirements to the state of health of aircrew belongs to our country. In 1911 military department publishes «The schedule of the diseases and corporal shortcomings interfering service of officers, the lower ranks and civilian technicians in aeronautic parts on aerostats and airplanes» and the order, the Crimea annual survey of pilots was provided, and also the age limit of service of pilots and aeronauts was established. According to this order at the St. Petersburg military hospital the first medical and flight commission (MFC) is created.

In the Soviet Army of the medical requirement being admitted to flight and aeronautic schools and for aircrew were developed for selection in 1924 and are announced by the order of Revolutionary Military Council. They concerned hl. obr. visual acuities, hearing, color sensation and indicators of physical development.

In the last decade before the Great Patriotic War rapid development of scientific research on aviation physiology, hygiene and VLE was noted. Their center became Aviation research sanitary in-t of RKKA, created in 1935 and renamed in 1936 in Ying t of an air medicine of RKKA of I. P. Pavlov. These years scientific our country performed many works practically on all main problems of an air medicine. On the basis of the obtained data and the accumulated experience of medical ensuring flights the schedule of the diseases and disfigurations interfering service in aircraft» and the instruction defining the organization and carrying out survey was published «.

During the Great Patriotic War of the medical requirement and all system of work of the expert organizations were reconsidered. «The schedule of the diseases and disfigurations interfering service in aircraft», which is put into operation by the order of the chief of the Head military and sanitary department of Red Army in 1941 and additions to it allowed to staff in the conditions of wartime air units by the persons capable for health reasons to perform fighting tasks, and also to return in a system the vast majority flight after treatment in hospitals.

In 1950 the Central medical and flight commission was created (see. The medical and flight commission), on to-ruyu all management and the organization of expert work in aircraft of Armed Forces of the USSR is assigned.

Due to the improvement of aircraft, development of the reactive aircraft equipment of the requirement to the state of health of aircrew new regulations on medical and flight examination are constantly reconsidered and entered.

Along with development and improvement of forms and methods of medical providing military aircraft the medical service of civil aviation (GVF) developed and improved. The first instruction about the organization of medical survey of aircrew in GVF was developed in 1924. In the next years in connection with accumulation of scientific data for GVF new instructions and regulations on medical examination of aircrew were developed and became effective (1934, 1950, etc.).

In post-war years the center of scientific research for an air medicine in civil aviation became State research in-t of civil aviation (GOSNIIGA), at Krom the department of an air medicine was created. In 1953 the order of Head department of the merchant air fleet in managements and flight educational institutions created laboratories of an air medicine, the Crimea carrying out scientific and practical work on questions of an air medicine was imputed a duty, except medical examination of aircrew (see Laboratory of an air medicine).

Due to the emergence in civil aviation of new types of airplanes, such as SILT-62, YAK-40, etc. also features of flights on them medical requirements to the state of health of flight crews were revised. In 1982 the new provision on medical examination of flight, cadet, dispatching structure, the stewards and persons coming to educational institutions of civil aviation, the USSR approved by the Ministry of civil aviation was enacted.

Content of activity of VLE is determined by the high requirements imposed by flight work to the state of health. Main objectives of VLE: definition for health reasons, to physical development and individual psikhofiziol. to qualities of degree of the validity to flight work of faces of aircrew, the validity of candidates and cadets to training in flight matter in educational institutions; definition but to the state of health of degree of the professional validity of the persons of land structure involved in performance of flight tasks, parachutists, glider pilots and aeronauts; definition of degree of the validity to military service of faces of aircrew and cadets of military educational institutions of the Ministry of Defence of the USSR; definition of a causal relationship of the diseases, wounds, contusions, injuries and mutilations which are available for faces of aircrew with features of their military specialty; identification among aircrew and cadets of persons, persons in need in to lay down. - the prof. actions; definition of extent of adaptation and a possibility of performance of flight work in special climatic conditions; identification of influence of adverse factors of flight work on the state of health and psychological qualities of faces of aircrew; accumulation, generalization and the analysis of these next medical surveys of faces of aircrew for improvement of medical and flight examination.

VLE includes a number of consecutive actions. Are in the plan of these actions: development of medical requirements to the state of health, physical development and individual psikhofiziol. to qualities of aircrew, candidates and cadets of educational institutions, heads of flights, faces of the land structure participating in performance of flight tasks, parachutists, glider pilots, aeronauts; development of indications for the most rational distribution of faces of aircrew in the specialty, to types and childbirth of aircraft according to the state of health; development of techniques of a research of the corresponding contingents; annual survey and performing periodic medical examinations of aircrew and cadets; analysis of incidence of aircrew; preparation of methodical grants for doctors of aircraft on carrying out to lay down. - the prof. of the actions recommended to aircrew at its medical survey.

Questions of the organization and order of carrying out medical survey, standards for definition of the validity for health reasons to flight work, military service, receipt in aviation educational institutions and to training in them, needs in rest, a sick leave, a possibility of performance of flight work in districts with adverse climate, and also instructions by techniques of medical inspection of testified are stated in the relevant provisions, the managements and annexes to them.

Bodies of VLE are regular and - the emergency medical and flight commissions (see. Medical and flight commission). Philosophy of VLE are complexity of studying of a human body in the conditions of its professional activity and individual approach at medical survey of aircrew. Complex studying consists in carrying out careful clinical, kliniko-physiological, psychological inspection, bench tests, in tone or other extent of adequate flight activity, and systematic medical overseeing by the state of health in the course of work and rest of aircrew. A result of such research is establishment a wedge, the diagnosis, the degrees of manifestation revealed patol. changes, features of disease and professional forecast. The principle of individual approach allows to estimate objectively degree of suitability testified to professional flight activity. The expert decree is issued not only on the basis of the revealed disease, and taking into account a number of other factors influencing the labor forecast. The most important of them are expressiveness of the functional disturbances, their firmness and extent of compensation, a possibility of negative influence of flight work on the state of health, and also experience and the nature of flight work demonstrated.

Bibliography: Lavnikov A. A. Fundamentals of air and space medicine, page 219, M., 1975; Malkin V. B. Use of an electroencephalography at selection of candidates for flight schools, Voyen. - medical zhurn., No. 5, page 57, 1978.

A. N. Stanchinsky.