EVACUATION POINT (a synonym
the evacuation center) — in the period of the Great Patriotic War the group of the medical institutions developed on the ways of evacuation struck and patients, combined by special body of management, having sanitary vehicles; it is intended for the evacuation and treatment evacuated on the battlefield and in the back of the country.
Predecessors E. the item can consider the evacuation commissions created in the Russian army in the 70th
19 century and existing prior to World War I. Emergence of such commissions is connected, first of all, with emergence and development. - of transport and need to send the considerable contingents of wounded and patients by the railroads from field army to the back of the country. However the specified commissions consisting preferential of the military officials who did not have medical educations at the center of the activity set a task of release of field army from wounded and patients that they did not constrain mobility of army and would not exert adverse impact on soldiers and officers. In such conditions, certainly, problems of treatment indulged in oblivion. Aggravated position of wounded and patients almost total absence of the medical management in the operating field and rear evacuation commissions, interdepartmental tensions, not administrative ability, low-power of assembly points for temporary placement evacuated, shortage of railway and other transport. So was in the Russian-Turkish war of 1877 — 1878 and repeated in the Russian-Japanese war of 1904 — 1905.
In World War I the evacuation commissions were abolished and replaced with system E. item. On the battlefield were created head and rear E. the item, in the internal district — distribution and district. However the prolonged organizational period allowed to complete the formation E. only by the end of 1914. It is necessary to emphasize that in the course of this war the progressive ideas of large uche-nykh-physicians of V. A. Oppel, N. A. Velyaminova, H. N. Burdenko, etc., the treatments directed to rationalization of methods and evacuation of wounded and patients, were not implemented in daily practice (see Medicine military). In voyennosanitarny service interdepartmental tensions, irresponsibility still dominated, sometimes arbitrariness, besides, was absent the uniform competent medical management; all this resulted in deplorable results. So, e.g., about evacuation were provided in the existing instruction, undoubtedly, progressive undertakings: on assembly (head) E. items were assigned such tasks as temporary hospitalization nontransportable, return to army after treatment lightly wounded and easily sick; on rear E. the item — hospitalization before recovery of wounded and patients with the term of treatment to 6 weeks, temporary hospitalization nontransportable, expansion of sufficient bed fund on the main operational directions. However many correct provisions provided by the instruction were practically carried out worse than ever. Value of medical sorting was underestimated (see Sorting medical), it was often carried out not competently, with mistakes. As a result a significant amount of lightly wounded and sick was evacuated to the back of the country. Nontransportable perished in a dignity. trains. Inf. patients dissipated over the country. Inept planning led to catastrophic overloads to lay down. institutions on head evacuation points in districts of active fighting while on secondary directions hospital stayed idle. All this eventually caused low indicators of recoverability in a system, a high lethality and disability. Thus, in the years of World War I formation E. by the item it was theoretically proved, but owing to the mentioned stagnancy of command and lack of the accurate medical guide it was not realized, and in work of the created institutions there were serious shortcomings.
Fig. The scheme of placement of evacuation points in the period of the Great Patriotic War.
During Civil war evacuation matter and treatment of wounded and patients in the country was combined by the uniform management represented by the Head Military and Sanitary Department (HMSD), and on fronts — a dignity. managements (see. Master military-medical control of the Ministry of Defence of the USSR). Despite the huge difficulties connected with hunger, ruin, epidemics, shortage of shots, transport and medical property, in 1918 a dignity. the service of Red Army created rather harmonious system medical evaku-atsionnogo providing field army. This system, in particular, provided the organization of the army evacuation centers which had network of field mobile hospitals (see. Field mobile hospital), accepting wounded and patients from divisional infirmaries and hospitals with the subsequent evacuation of persons in need to the head evacuation center (as a matter of fact, front), to-ry also had network of preferential stationary hospitals. For the first time in domestic practice contours of specialized medical care rather accurately appeared. Were created surgical, therapeutic, infectious hospital, in them ophthalmologic, otorhinolaryngological and other departments were allocated. Evacuation of wounded and patients accepted lines of evacuation medical (see).
In the subsequent military conflicts improvement of lechebnoevakuatsionny providing wounded and patients in the acting troops continued and by the beginning of the Great Patriotic War came to the end with creation of harmonious system, stage treatment with evacuation to destination was the basis a cut (see System of medical and evacuation providing).
In the period of the Great Patriotic War E. items functioned in armies, on fronts and in the internal district of the country. Their main destination came down to the management to lay down. work in the subordinated hospitals and the organization of medical evacuation. For this purpose hospital grouped with calculation, to-ry allowed to render totally in such group all main types of the specialized help. In the period of the Great Patriotic War these groups were called as hospital collectors (see. Hospital base). Thus, the hospital base consisted of a number of the hospital collectors developed on the main ways of evacuation. Armies worked field E. items (PEP), to-rye for streamlining of medical evacuation had the opportunity provided by the state if necessary to push forward head departments (GOPEP). In front districts the front evacuation points (FEP) functioned. On a number of fronts for the aid to them the local evacuation points (LEP) and PEP of front subordination were selected. The distribution evacuation points (DEP) and MEP (fig.) worked in the internal district of the country. Everyone E. the item was headed by an operating controls, the following departments (departments) were a part to-rogo: evacuation, medical, medical supply, hemotransfusion, quartermaster, administrative, shots, financial, etc. Main destination E. the item — expansion of hospital base, the management it of medical and evacuation activity, the organization of medical evacuation of wounded and patients, as a rule, on, and also mezhgospi-talny evacuation, delivery evacuated to stations of loading, material support of the hospitals and other parts and divisions which are its part, the leadership in military-medical examination, completion of subordinates of institutions by staff.
P about l e in about ii evacuation point (PEP) was developed within the rear district of army. The head of department of PEP submitted to the chief of sanitary department of army. PEP had group of field mobile hospitals in the subordination: to a hirurgicha
sky — HPPG (see. Surgical field mobile hospital), therapeutic — Chamber of Commerce and Industry of (see. Therapeutic field mobile hospital]), infectious — IPPG
(see. Infectious field mobile hospital), GLR (see Hospital for lightly wounded), evacuation receiving stations — the EDS (see. The evacuation receiver), sometimes classifying sections evacuation hospital — SEG (see. Sorting hospital), military and sanitary short meetings; in some cases — temporary military and sanitary trains — VVSP, autosledge - tare transport, sometimes hospital aircrafts, and also laundry group, warehouses, etc. The main destination of PEP — expansion of hospital base of army and the management it of medical and evacuation activity, implementation of evacuation of wounded and patients in the army rear district, their delivery to places of loading from where they were evacuated to the front district. In total PEP had about 15 — 25 hospitals,
with a bed capacity up to 6 — 8 thousand beds. On a number of fronts field evacuation points were included also the evacuation centers subordinated to the chief of medical management of the front.
The Front Evacuation Point (FEP) was developed within the rear district of the front. The head of department of FEP submitted to the chief of sanitary management of the front. Were under supervision of FEP evacuation hospital — EG, SEG, on a number of fronts — control evacuation hospital — KEG (see. Evacuation hospital), field mobile hospital, dignity. short meetings, VVSP, automedical ambulance, dignity. airplanes, in the presence of waterways of evacuation — sanitary and transport vessels. The main objectives of FEP were the organization of evacuation of wounded and patients from GB And on themselves, and also within the front rear district, the leadership in medical and evacuation activity of the hospitals making the hospital base of the front (HBF). Depending on structure of the front and its operational tasks FEP joined considerable number of the hospitals which had several tens of thousands of beds on the state.
The Local Evacuation Point (LEP) was developed in the internal district of the country, in the territory of the rear military district or on the battlefield where it performed the functions similar to the FEP functions. In the first case the head of department of MEP submitted to sanitary management (department) of the district, on evacuation questions — the chief the RAP. In vtorokhm a case — to the chief of sanitary management of the front (sometimes to the chief of FEP).
MEP of the internal district of the country, as a rule, were located in large settlements with extensive housing stock, on main. - a node and most often were a final stage of evacuation. EG, SEG were a part of MEP; their bed fund was considerable, but was exposed to the known fluctuations. The number of evakogospitaly MEP, located in the depth of the country, included hospital of the National commissariat of health care and the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions, in the operational relation the attributed MEP.
To a conflict of affairs and bodies y y evacuation point (RAP) was located with N in the internal district of the country, usually on the main directions of evacuation of wounded and patients from the operating fronts. The head of department the RAP submitted directly to the chief of GVSU. EG, SEG, a dignity, as a rule, were a part the RAP. transport, military and sanitary trains — VSP, sanitary and transport vessels and other divisions. The RAP evakogospital of the National commissariat of health care and the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions were included. The main objectives the RAP — the organization of medical evacuation from fronts (2 — 3 fronts are more often) to the internal district of the country, flow control of the operating hospital bases evacuated with calculation of ravnokhmerny filling, as the, and local evacuation points, the leadership in medical and evacuation activity of the hospitals which are under supervision the RAP or attributed to it.
The RAP in the evacuation relation the local evacuation points deployed in the internal district of the country, located on the evacuation directions subordinated given the RAP submitted to management. Bed power the RAP fluctuated, but was considerable and was estimated in tens of thousands of beds. Bibliography: Military-medical preparation, under the editorship of F. I. Komarov, M., 1984;
3 and in and l and sh and N. I N. Head field evacuation point, M., 1942; L of ides about in I. P. Bases of medical and evacuation providing the Soviet Army, in book: Basis! the organizations of medical providing troops, under the editorship of N. I. Zavalishin, page 44, M., 1961; About p p e l V. A. Sketches of surgery of war, page 328, L., 1940.